Maintaining Research Results
The results of research should be recorded and maintained in a form that allows analysis and review, both by collaborators before publication and by other scientists for a reasonable period after publication. Exceptions may be appropriate in certain circumstances to preserve privacy, to assure patent protection, or for similar reasons.
Fabrication of data is an egregious departure from the expected norms of scientific conduct, as is the selective reporting of data with the intent to mislead or deceive, as well as the theft of data or research results from others.
The authors’ central obligation is to present a concise, accurate account of the research performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to public sources of information to permit others to repeat the work.
Proper acknowledgment of the work of others used in a research project must always be given. Authors should cite publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work. Information obtained privately, as in conversation, correspondence, or discussion with third parties, should not be used or reported without explicit permission from the investigator with whom the information originated. Information obtained in the course of confidential services, such as refereeing manuscripts or grant applications, cannot be used without permission of the author of the work being used.
Authors must obtain permission for use of any previously published materials from the original publisher. Proof of permission must be provided before manuscripts containing previously published material can be published. Proper credit lines for all previously published material must be included in the manuscript.
Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the concept, design, execution, or interpretation of the research study. All those who have made significant contributions should be offered the opportunity to be listed as authors. Other individuals who have contributed to the study should be acknowledged, but not identified as authors. The sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed.
All collaborators share some degree of responsibility for any paper they coauthor.
Only persons who have significantly contributed to the research should be listed as authors. The author who submits the paper for publication should ensure that all appropriate coauthors and no inappropriate coauthors are included on the paper, and that all coauthors have seen the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.
Some coauthors have responsibility for the entire paper as an accurate, verifiable report of the research. These include, for example, coauthors who are accountable for the integrity of the critical data reported in the paper, carry out the analysis, write the manuscript, present major findings at conferences, or provide scientific leadership for junior colleagues. Other coauthors may have responsibility mainly for specific, limited contributions to a paper.
Every coauthor should have the opportunity to review the manuscript before it is submitted for publication. All coauthors have an obligation to provide prompt retractions or correction of errors in published works. Any individual unwilling or unable to accept appropriate responsibility for a paper should not be a coauthor.
- The corresponding author must have the approval of all other listed authors for the submission and publication of all versions of the manuscript.
- Anyone who has made independent contributions to the manuscript should be invited to become a coauthor.
- The submitted manuscript must contain unpublished original work and not be under consideration for publication by any other journal, other than in oral, poster or abstract formats. Duplicate publications are never acceptable.
- The authors’ central obligation is to present a concise, accurate account of the research and an objective discussion of its significance. A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to public sources of information to permit others to repeat the work.
- Plagiarism or self-plagiarism constitutes unethical scientific behavior and is never acceptable.
- Any part of the submitted manuscript that derives from prior published work, including work by the same authors, must be properly cited.
- Fragmentation of research papers is not acceptable. Publications should be organized so that each paper gives a complete account of a particular aspect of the research.
- Criticism of a paper in either a Comment or article must be professional, substantive, and free of polemics.
- If any of the preceding guidelines ceases to be true, the authors have a duty to notify the Editor as soon as possible so that corrective action can be taken.