The charge-density-wave (CDW) phase is a macroscopic quantum state consisting of a periodic modulation of the electronic charge density accompanied by a periodic distortion of the atomic lattice. Unconventional forms of superconductivity frequently emerge from a CDW phase hence the fundamental interest. The early work on CDW effects was performed with bulk samples, which have quasi-one-dimensional (1D) crystal structures of strongly-bound 1D atomic chains that are weakly bound together by van-der-Waals forces. Many spectacular observations were made – nonlinear transport, oscillating electric current for time independent voltages, effects analogous to the Josephson effect observed in superconductors, giant dielectric response, by-stable conducting states, just to mention a few. Recent years witnessed a rebirth of the CDW field found in layered quasi-two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals materials and, in some cases CDW manifestation at room temperature (RT) and above. The interest to quasi-1D CDW materials has also reemerged due to recent finding of topological nontriviality of many of them. Despite numerous open physics questions, the CDW quantum materials field is rapidly evolving towards applied physics and engineering domains with application potential for amplifiers, detectors, memory, optoelectronic devices, information processing and radiation-hard electronics.
Topics covered include, but are not limited to:
- Synthesis and characterization of novel low-dimensional, quasi-2D and quasi-1D CDW materials;
- Machine learning and other innovative techniques for the search of new CDW materials with high transition temperatures;
- Physics of the CDW phase transitions, electron transport in nearly commensurate and incommensurate CDW materials;
- Metastable “hidden” CDW phases, topologically nontrivial states, solitons in CDW conductors, effects of low-dimensionality and stress, new developments in CDW pinning;
- Ultra-fast optical and electric switching of CDW phases, photoconduction in CDW materials, “broad-band” and “narrow-band” electronic noise in CDW materials;
- CDW phase interaction with light, radiation and other stimuli, as well as novel CDW characterization techniques;
- Advancements in CDW theory;
- Spin density waves (SDW), Wigner crystals and other manifestations of density waves;
- Device applications of CDW-SDW materials – from detectors to information processing.
Alexander A. Balandin, University of California, Riverside
George Grüner, University of California, Los Angeles
Sergei V. Zaitsev-Zotov, Kotelnikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics, Moscow