PACS Reg80

PACS 2010 Regular Edition—Sec. 80

81. Materials science
81.05.-t Specific materials: fabrication, treatment, testing, and analysis (for superconducting materials, see 74.70.-b, and 74.72.-h; for magnetic materials, see 75.50.-y; for optical materials, see 42.70.-a; for dielectric materials, see 77.84.-s; for disperse systems and complex fluids, see 82.70.-y; see also 82.75.-z Molecular sieves, zeolites, clathrates, and other complex solids; for materials properties, see sections 60 and 70)
... ... ... Superconducting materials, see 74.70.-b and 74.72.-h
... ... ... Magnetic materials, see 75.50.-y
... ... ... Optical materials, see 42.70.-a
... ... ... Dielectric, piezoelectric, and ferroelectric materials, see 77.84.-s
... ... ... Colloids, gels, and emulsions, see 82.70.Dd, Gg, Kj
... ... ... Biomaterials, see 87.85.J-
... ... ... Molecular sieves, zeolites, and other complex materials, see 82.75.-z
81.05.Bx Metals, semimetals, and alloys
81.05.Cy Elemental semiconductors (for semiconductors in electrochemistry, see 82.45.Vp)
81.05.Dz II-VI semiconductors
81.05.Ea III-V semiconductors
81.05.Fb Organic semiconductors
81.05.Gc Amorphous semiconductors
81.05.Hd Other semiconductors
81.05.Je Ceramics and refractories (including borides, carbides, hydrides, nitrides, oxides, and silicides) (for ceramics in electrochemistry, see 82.45.Yz)
81.05.Kf Glasses (including metallic glasses)
81.05.Lg Polymers and plastics; rubber; synthetic and natural fibers; organometallic and organic materials (for polymers and organic materials in electrochemistry, see 82.45.Wx)
81.05.Mh Cermets, ceramic and refractory composites
81.05.Ni Dispersion-, fiber-, and platelet-reinforced metal-based composites
81.05.Pj Glass-based composites, vitroceramics
81.05.Qk Reinforced polymers and polymer-based composites
81.05.Rm Porous materials; granular materials (for granular superconductors, see 74.81.Bd)
81.05.U- Carbon/carbon-based materials (for carbon-based superconductors, see 74.70.Wz)
81.05.ub Fullerenes and related materials
81.05.ue Graphene (for structure of graphene, see 61.48.Gh; for phonons in graphene, see 63.22.Rc; for thermal properties, see 65.80.Ck; for graphene films, see 68.65.Pq; for electronic transport, see 72.80.Vp; for electronic structure, see 73.22.Pr; for optical properties, see 78.67.Wj)
81.05.uf Graphite Diamond
81.05.uj Diamond/nanocarbon composites
81.05.Xj Metamaterials for chiral, bianisotropic and other complex media (see also 42.70.-a Optical materials; see also 78.67.Pt, Multilayers; superlattices; photonic structures; metamaterials)
81.05.Zx New materials: theory, design, and fabrication
81.07.-b Nanoscale materials and structures: fabrication and characterization (for structure of nanoscale materials, see 61.46.-w; for nanostructured materials in electrochemistry, see 82.45.Yz; see also 62.23.-c Structural classes of nanoscale systems in mechanical properties of condensed matter)
81.07.Bc Nanocrystalline materials
81.07.De Nanotubes
81.07.Gf Nanowires
81.07.Lk Nanocontacts
81.07.Nb Molecular nanostructures
81.07.Oj Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS)
81.07.Pr Organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures
81.07.St Quantum wells
81.07.Ta Quantum dots
81.07.Vb Quantum wires
81.07.Wx Nanopowders
81.10.-h Methods of crystal growth; physics and chemistry of crystal growth, crystal morphology, and orientation (see also 61.50.Lt Crystal binding, cohesive energy)
81.10.Aj Theory and models of crystal growth; physics and chemistry of crystal growth, crystal morphology, and orientation (see also 61.50.Nw Crystal stoichiometry)
81.10.Bk Growth from vapor
81.10.Dn Growth from solutions
81.10.Fq Growth from melts; zone melting and refining
81.10.Jt Growth from solid phases (including multiphase diffusion and recrystallization)
81.10.Mx Growth in microgravity environments
81.10.Pq Growth in vacuum
81.10.St Growth in controlled gaseous atmospheres
81.15.-z Methods of deposition of films and coatings; film growth and epitaxy (for structure of thin films, see 68.55.-a; see also 85.40.Sz Deposition technology in microelectronics; for epitaxial dielectric films, see 77.55.Px)
81.15.Aa Theory and models of film growth
81.15.Cd Deposition by sputtering
81.15.Dj E-beam and hot filament evaporation deposition
81.15.Fg Pulsed laser ablation deposition
81.15.Gh Chemical vapor deposition (including plasma-enhanced CVD, MOCVD, ALD, etc.) (for chemistry of MOCVD, see 82.33.Ya in physical chemistry and chemical physics)
81.15.Hi Molecular, atomic, ion, and chemical beam epitaxy
81.15.Jj Ion and electron beam-assisted deposition; ion plating (see also 52.77.Dq Plasma-based ion implantation and deposition in physics of plasmas)
81.15.Kk Vapor phase epitaxy; growth from vapor phase
81.15.Lm Liquid phase epitaxy; deposition from liquid phases (melts, solutions, and surface layers on liquids)
81.15.Np Solid phase epitaxy; growth from solid phases
81.15.Pq Electrodeposition, electroplating
81.15.Rs Spray coating techniques
81.16.-c Methods of micro- and nanofabrication and processing (for femtosecond probing of semiconductor nanostructures, see 82.53.Mj in physical chemistry and chemical physics)
81.16.Be Chemical synthesis methods
81.16.Dn Self-assembly
81.16.Fg Supramolecular and biochemical assembly
81.16.Hc Catalytic methods
81.16.Mk Laser-assisted deposition
81.16.Nd Micro- and nanolithography
81.16.Pr Micro- and nano-oxidation (see also 82.37.Np Single molecule reaction kinetics)
81.16.Rf Micro- and nanoscale pattern formation
81.16.Ta Atom manipulation (see also 82.37.Gk STM and AFM manipulation of a single-molecule; for atom and molecule traps, see 37.10.Gh, and 37.10.Pq, respectively; 87.80.Nj Single-molecule techniques in biological physics; 82.37.Rs Single-molecule manipulation of proteins and other biological molecules in physical chemistry)
81.20.-n Methods of materials synthesis and materials processing (see also 61.72.U- Doping and impurity implantation; for crystal growth, see 81.10.-h; for film growth, deposition and epitaxy, see 81.15.-z)
... ... ... Crystal growth, see 81.10.-h
... ... ... Film deposition, film growth, and epitaxy, see 81.15.-z
81.20.Ev Powder processing: powder metallurgy, compaction, sintering, mechanical alloying, and granulation
81.20.Fw Sol-gel processing, precipitation (for reactions in sol-gels, see 82.33.Ln; for sol-gels as disperse system, see 82.70.Gg)
81.20.Hy Forming; molding, extrusion, etc. [see also, 83.50.Uv Material processing (extension, molding, etc.)]
81.20.Ka Chemical synthesis; combustion synthesis (for electrochemical synthesis, see 82.45.Aa)
... ... ... Chemical vapor deposition, see 81.15.Gh
81.20.Rg Aerosols in materials synthesis and processing
81.20.Vj Joining; welding
81.20.Wk Machining, milling
81.20.Ym Purification
81.30.-t Phase diagrams and microstructures developed by solidification and solid-solid phase transformations (see also 64.70.K- Solid-solid transitions)
81.30.Bx Phase diagrams of metals, alloys, and oxides
81.30.Dz Phase diagrams of other materials (for superconductivity phase diagrams, see 74.25.Dw; for magnetic phase boundaries, see 75.30.Kz)
81.30.Fb Solidification
81.30.Hd Constant-composition solid-solid phase transformations: polymorphic, massive, and order-disorder
81.30.Kf Martensitic transformations
81.30.Mh Solid-phase precipitation (for precipitation hardening, see 81.40.Cd)
81.40.-z Treatment of materials and its effects on microstructure, nanostructure, and properties
81.40.Cd Solid solution hardening, precipitation hardening, and dispersion hardening; aging (see also 64.75.Nx Phase separation and segregation in solid solutions)
81.40.Ef Cold working, work hardening; annealing, post-deformation annealing, quenching, tempering recovery, and crystallization
81.40.Gh Other heat and thermomechanical treatments
81.40.Jj Elasticity and anelasticity, stress-strain relations
81.40.Lm Deformation, plasticity, and creep (see also 83.50.-v Deformation and flow in rheology)
81.40.Np Fatigue, corrosion fatigue, embrittlement, cracking, fracture, and failure (see also 62.20.M- Structural failure of materials)
81.40.Pq Friction, lubrication, and wear
81.40.Rs Electrical and magnetic properties related to treatment conditions
81.40.Tv Optical and dielectric properties related to treatment conditions
81.40.Vw Pressure treatment (see also 62.50.-p High-pressure effects in solids and liquids; 61.50.Ks Crystallographic aspects of phase transformations; pressure effects; for pressure effects on superconducting transition temperature, see 74.62.Fj)
81.40.Wx Radiation treatment (particle and electromagnetic) (see also 61.80.-x Physical radiation effects, radiation damage)
... ... ... Etching, corrosion, oxidation, and other surface treatments, see 81.65.-b
81.65.-b Surface treatments (for surface preparation and lithography in microelectronics, see 85.40.-e)
81.65.Cf Surface cleaning, etching, patterning (see also 52.77.Bn Etching and cleaning in physics of plasmas)
81.65.Kn Corrosion protection (see also 82.45.Bb Corrosion and passivation in electrochemistry)
81.65.Lp Surface hardening: nitridation, carburization, carbonitridation
81.65.Mq Oxidation (see also 64.75.Lm Phase separation and segregation in oxidation)
81.65.Ps Polishing, grinding, surface finishing
81.65.Rv Passivation (see also 82.45.Bb Corrosion and passivation in electrochemistry)
81.65.Tx Gettering
81.70.-q Methods of materials testing and analysis (see also 82.80.-d Chemical analysis and related physical methods of analysis)
81.70.Bt Mechanical testing, impact tests, static and dynamic loads (see also 62.20.M- Structural failure of materials; 46.50.+a Fracture mechanics, fatigue, and cracks)
81.70.Cv Nondestructive testing: ultrasonic testing, photoacoustic testing
81.70.Ex Nondestructive testing: electromagnetic testing, eddy-current testing
81.70.Fy Nondestructive testing: optical methods
81.70.Ha Testing in microgravity environments
81.70.Jb Chemical composition analysis, chemical depth and dopant profiling
81.70.Pg Thermal analysis, differential thermal analysis (DTA), differential thermogravimetric analysis
81.70.Tx Computed tomography
81.90.+c Other topics in materials science (restricted to new topics in section 81)
82. Physical chemistry and chemical physics (for electronic structure calculations, see 31.15.-p, 71.15.-m, 87.10.-e, 74.20.Pq, and 36.20.Kd in atomic and molecular physics, bulk materials, biophysics, superconductivity, and macromolecules, respectively; for geochemistry, see 91.67.-y; for chemistry of the ocean, see 92.20.Cm; for chemistry of fresh water, see 92.40.Bc; for chemistry of the atmosphere, see 92.60.H- and 92.60.Ls; for chemical reactions in scattering of atoms and molecules, see 34.50.Lf)
82.20.-w Chemical kinetics and dynamics
82.20.Bc State selected dynamics and product distribution
82.20.Db Transition state theory and statistical theories of rate constants
82.20.Ej Quantum theory of reaction cross section
82.20.Fd Collision theories; trajectory models
82.20.Gk Electronically non-adiabatic reactions
82.20.Hf Product distribution (for state selected dynamics and product distribution, see 82.20.Bc)
82.20.Kh Potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions (for potential energy surfaces for collisions, see 34.20.-b in atomic and molecular collisions and interactions)
82.20.Ln Semiclassical theory of reactions and/or energy transfer
82.20.Nk Classical theories of reactions and/or energy transfer
82.20.Pm Rate constants, reaction cross sections, and activation energies
82.20.Rp State to state energy transfer (see also 31.70.Hq Time-dependent phenomena—in atomic and molecular physics)
82.20.Sb Correlation function theory of rate constants and its applications
82.20.Tr Kinetic isotope effects including muonium
82.20.Uv Stochastic theories of rate constants
82.20.Wt Computational modeling; simulation
82.20.Xr Quantum effects in rate constants (tunneling, resonances, etc.)
82.20.Yn Solvent effects on reactivity
82.30.-b Specific chemical reactions; reaction mechanisms (for enzyme kinetics, see 82.39.Fk, and 87.15.R-; for protein folding dynamics, see, and 87.15.Cc)
82.30.Cf Atom and radical reactions; chain reactions; molecule-molecule reactions
82.30.Fi Ion-molecule, ion-ion, and charge-transfer reactions (see also 34.70.+e Charge transfer in atomic and molecular collisions)
... ... ... Charge transfer in enzymes, see 82.39.Jn and 87.15.R-
82.30.Gg Positronium chemistry (see also 36.10.Dr Positronium in atomic and molecular physics; 78.70.Bj Positron annihilation in interactions of particles and radiation with matter)
82.30.Hk Chemical exchanges (substitution, atom transfer, abstraction, disproportionation, and group exchange)
82.30.Lp Decomposition reactions (pyrolysis, dissociation, and fragmentation)
82.30.Nr Association, addition, insertion, cluster formation
82.30.Qt Isomerization and rearrangement
82.30.Rs Hydrogen bonding, hydrophilic effects
82.30.Vy Homogeneous catalysis in solution, polymers and zeolites (for heterogeneous catalysis in zeolites, see 82.75.Qt)
82.33.-z Reactions in various media
82.33.De Reactions in supercritical fluids (for optical properties of supercritical fluids, see 78.15.+e)
82.33.Fg Reactions in clusters (see also 36.40.Jn Reactivity of clusters in atomic and molecular physics)
82.33.Hk Reactions on clusters
82.33.Jx Reactions in zeolites
82.33.Ln Reactions in sol gels, aerogels, porous media
82.33.Nq Reactions in micells
82.33.Pt Solid state chemistry
... ... ... Reactions in complex biological systems, see 82.39.Rt and 87.15R-
82.33.Tb Atmospheric chemistry (see also 92.60.H- in geophysics)
82.33.Vx Reactions in flames, combustion, and explosions
82.33.Xj Plasma reactions (including flowing afterglow and electric discharges)
82.33.Ya Chemistry of MOCVD and other vapor deposition methods (for methods of vapor deposition of films and coatings, see 81.15.Gh, and 81.15. Kk in materials science)
82.35.-x Polymers: properties; reactions; polymerization (for polymers in electrochemistry, see 82.45.Wx)
82.35.Cd Conducting polymers
82.35.Ej Nonlinear optics with polymers (see also 42.65.-k in nonlinear optics)
82.35.Gh Polymers on surfaces; adhesion (see also 68.35.Np Adhesion in surfaces and interfaces)
82.35.Jk Copolymers, phase transitions, structure
82.35.Lr Physical properties of polymers
82.35.Np Nanoparticles in polymers (see also 81.07.-b Nanoscale materials and structures: fabrication and characterization)
82.35.Pq Biopolymers, biopolymerization (see also 87.15.rp Polymerization in biological and medical physics)
82.35.Rs Polyelectrolytes
82.37.-j Single molecule kinetics
82.37.Gk STM and AFM manipulations of a single molecule (for atom manipulation see 37.10.Gh, Pq in atomic and molecular physics; see also 81.16.Ta Atom manipulation in methods of nanofabrication and processing; 87.80.Nj Single-molecule techniques in biological physics)
82.37.Np Single molecule reaction kinetics, dissociation, etc.
82.37.Rs Single molecule manipulation of proteins and other biological molecules
82.37.Vb Single molecule photochemistry
82.39.-k Chemical kinetics in biological systems (see also 87.15.R- Reactions and kinetics in biological and medical physics, and 82.45.Tv Bioelectrochemistry)
82.39.Fk Enzyme kinetics (see also 87.14.ej Enzymes in biological physics)
82.39.Jn Charge (electron, proton) transfer in biological systems
82.39.Pj Nucleic acids, DNA and RNA bases (for DNA, see 87.14.gk; for RNA, see
82.39.Rt Reactions in complex biological systems (see also 87.18.-h Biological complexity)
82.39.Wj Ion exchange, dialysis, osmosis, electro-osmosis, membrane processes
82.40.-g Chemical kinetics and reactions: special regimes and techniques (for chemically reactive flows, see 47.70.Fw; see also 82.20.Uv Stochastic theories of rate constants)
... ... ... Chemically reactive flows, see 47.70.Fw
82.40.Bj Oscillations, chaos, and bifurcations
82.40.Ck Pattern formation in reactions with diffusion, flow and heat transfer (see also 47.54.-r Pattern selection; pattern formation and 47.32.C- Vortex dynamics in fluid dynamics)
82.40.Fp Shock wave initiated reactions, high-pressure chemistry (see also 47.40.Nm Shock wave interactions and shock effects in fluid dynamics, and 62.50.Ef Shock wave effects in solids and liquids)
82.40.Np Temporal and spatial patterns in surface reactions
82.40.Qt Complex chemical systems (see also 82.39.Rt Reactions in complex biological systems and 87.18.-h Biological complexity)
82.45.-h Electrochemistry and electrophoresis
82.45.Aa Electrochemical synthesis (see also 81.16.Be Chemical synthesis methods in nanofabrication and 81.20.Ka Chemical synthesis; combustion synthesis in materials science)
82.45.Bb Corrosion and passivation (see also 81.65.Kn Corrosion protection and 81.65.Rv Passivation in surface treatments)
82.45.Cc Anodic films
82.45.Fk Electrodes
82.45.Gj Electrolytes (for polyelectrolytes, see 82.35.Rs and 82.45.Wx; see also 66.30.H- Self-diffusion and ionic conduction in nonmetals)
82.45.Hk Electrolysis
82.45.Jn Surface structure, reactivity and catalysis (see also 82.65.+r Surface and interface chemistry; heterogeneous catalysis at surfaces)
82.45.Mp Thin layers, films, monolayers, membranes (for anodic films, see 82.45.Cc; for surface double layers, see 73.30.+y in electronic structure of surfaces)
82.45.Qr Electrodeposition and electrodissolution (see also 81.15.Pq Electrodeposition, electroplating in materials science)
82.45.Rr Electroanalytical chemistry (see also 82.80.Fk Electrochemical methods in chemical analysis and related physical methods of analysis)
82.45.Tv Bioelectrochemistry (see also 82.39.-k Chemical kinetics in biological systems; 87.15.Tt Electrophoresis in biological physics)
82.45.Un Dielectric materials in electrochemistry (see also 77.84.-s Dielectric, piezoelectric, ferroelectric, and antiferroelectric materials)
82.45.Vp Semiconductor materials in electrochemistry (see also 81.05.Cy Elemental semiconductors; 81.05.Dz II-VI semiconductors; 81.05.Ea III-V semiconductors; 81.05.Fb Organic semiconductors; 81.05.Gc Amorphous semiconductors in specific materials)
82.45.Wx Polymers and organic materials in electrochemistry (see also 82.35.-x Polymers: properties; reactions; polymerization)
82.45.Xy Ceramics in electrochemistry (see also 81.05.Je Ceramics and refractories, and 81.05.Mh Cermets, ceramic and refractory composites in specific materials)
82.45.Yz Nanostructured materials in electrochemistry (for nanofabrication, see 81.16.-c in materials science)
82.47.-a Applied electrochemistry (see also 88.30.G- Fuel cell systems, and 88.30.P- Types of fuel cells in renewable energy resources and applications)
82.47.Aa Lithium-ion batteries
82.47.Cb Lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride and other batteries (for lithium-ion batteries, see 82.47.Aa)
82.47.Ed Solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC)
82.47.Gh Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells
82.47.Jk Photoelectrochemical cells, photoelectrochromic and other hybrid electrochemical energy storage devices (see also 84.60.Jt Photoelectric conversion)
82.47.Lh Molten-carbonate fuel cells (MCFC)
82.47.Nj Polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC)
82.47.Pm Phosphoric-acid fuel cells (PAFC); other fuel cells
82.47.Rs Electrochemical sensors
82.47.Tp Electrochemical displays
82.47.Uv Electrochemical capacitors; supercapacitors (see also 88.80.fh Supercapacitors in renewable energy resources and applications; 84.60.Ve Energy storage systems, including capacitor banks in direct energy conversion and storage)
82.47.Wx Electrochemical engineering
82.50.-m Photochemistry (for single molecule photochemistry, see 82.37.Vb)
82.50.Bc Processes caused by infrared radiation
82.50.Hp Processes caused by visible and UV light
82.50.Kx Processes caused by X-rays or γ-rays
82.50.Nd Control of photochemical reactions
82.50.Pt Multiphoton processes
82.53.-k Femtochemistry [see also 78.47.J-; Ultrafast spectroscopy (<1 psec) in condensed matter; 42.65.Re Ultrafast processes; optical generation and pulse compression in nonlinear optics]
82.53.Eb Pump probe studies of photodissociation
82.53.Hn Pump probe experiments with bound states
82.53.Kp Coherent spectroscopy of atoms and molecules
82.53.Mj Femtosecond probing of semiconductor nanostructures (see also 81.16.-c Methods of micro- and nanofabrication and processing)
82.53.Ps Femtosecond probing of biological molecules
82.53.St Femtochemistry of adsorbed molecules (for adsorbate structure, see 68.43.Bc, Fg in chemisorption/physisorption: adsorbates on surfaces)
82.53.Uv Femtosecond probes of molecules in liquids
82.53.Xa Femtosecond probes of molecules in solids and of molecular solids
82.56.-b Nuclear magnetic resonance (see also 33.25.+k Nuclear resonance and relaxation in atomic and molecular physics; 76.60.-k Nuclear magnetic resonance and relaxation; 76.70.-r Magnetic double resonances and cross effects in condensed matter)
82.56.Dj High resolution NMR
82.56.Fk Multidimensional NMR
82.56.Hg Multinuclear NMR
82.56.Jn Pulse sequences in NMR
82.56.Lz Diffusion
82.56.Na Relaxation
82.56.Pp NMR of biomolecules
82.56.Ub Structure determination with NMR
82.60.-s Chemical thermodynamics (see also 05.70.Ln Nonequilibrium and irreversible thermodynamics)
82.60.Cx Enthalpies of combustion, reaction, and formation
82.60.Fa Heat capacities and heats of phase transitions
82.60.Hc Chemical equilibria and equilibrium constants
82.60.Lf Thermodynamics of solutions
82.60.Nh Thermodynamics of nucleation (see also 64.60.Q- Nucleation—in equations of state, phase equilibria and phase transitions)
82.60.Qr Thermodynamics of nanoparticles
82.65.+r Surface and interface chemistry; heterogeneous catalysis at surfaces (for temporal and spatial patterns in surface reactions, see 82.40.Np; see also 82.45.Jn Surface structure, reactivity and catalysis in electrochemistry; see also 68.43.-h Chemisorption/physisorption: adsorbates on surfaces)
82.70.-y Disperse systems; complex fluids (see also 82.33.-z reactions in various media; for quantum optical phenomena in dispersive media, see 42.50.Nn)
82.70.Dd Colloids
82.70.Gg Gels and sols
82.70.Kj Emulsions and suspensions
82.70.Rr Aerosols and foams
82.70.Uv Surfactants, micellar solutions, vesicles, lamellae, amphiphilic systems, (hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions) (see also 82.30.Rs Hydrogen bonding, hydrophilic effects in specific chemical reactions)
82.75.-z Molecular sieves, zeolites, clathrates, and other complex solids
82.75.Fq Synthesis, structure determination, structure modeling
82.75.Jn Measurements and modeling of molecule migration in zeolites
82.75.Mj Measurements and simulation of properties (optical, structural) of molecules in zeolites
82.75.Qt Mechanism and kinetics of catalysis in zeolites (measurements or simulations)
82.75.Vx Clusters in zeolites
82.80.-d Chemical analysis and related physical methods of analysis (for related instrumentation, see section 07; for spectroscopic techniques in biological physics, see 87.64.-t)
82.80.Bg Chromatography
82.80.Dx Analytical methods involving electronic spectroscopy
82.80.Ej X-ray, Mössbauer, and other γ-ray spectroscopic analysis methods
82.80.Fk Electrochemical methods (see also 82.45.Rr Electroanalytical chemistry; for electrochemical sensors, see 82.47.Rs)
82.80.Gk Analytical methods involving vibrational spectroscopy
82.80.Ha Analytical methods involving rotational spectroscopy
82.80.Jp Activation analysis and other radiochemical methods
82.80.Kq Energy-conversion spectro-analytical methods (e.g., photoacoustic, photothermal, and optogalvanic spectroscopic methods)
82.80.Ms Mass spectrometry (including SIMS, multiphoton ionization and resonance ionization mass spectrometry, MALDI)
82.80.Nj Fourier transform mass spectrometry
82.80.Pv Electron spectroscopy (X-ray photoelectron (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), etc.)
82.80.Qx Ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry
82.80.Rt Time of flight mass spectrometry
82.80.Yc Rutherford backscattering (RBS), and other methods of chemical analysis
82.90.+j Other topics in physical chemistry and chemical physics (restricted to new topics in section 82)
83. Rheology (see also section 47 Fluid dynamics; for rheology of the Earth, see 91.32.-m; see also 87.19.rh Fluid transport and rheology in biological physics)
83.10.-y Fundamentals and theoretical
83.10.Bb Kinematics of deformation and flow (see also 47.50.-d Non-Newtonian fluid flows)
83.10.Ff Continuum mechanics (see also section 46 Continuum mechanics of solids)
83.10.Gr Constitutive relations
83.10.Kn Reptation and tube theories
83.10.Mj Molecular dynamics, Brownian dynamics
83.10.Pp Particle dynamics
83.10.Rs Computer simulation of molecular and particle dynamics
83.10.Tv Structural and phase changes
83.50.-v Deformation and flow
83.50.Ax Steady shear flows, viscometric flow
83.50.Ha Flow in channels (see also 47.60.Dx Flows in ducts and channels in fluid dynamics)
83.50.Jf Extensional flow and combined shear and extension
83.50.Lh Slip boundary effects (interfacial and free surface flows) (see also 47.45.Gx Slip flows and accommodation in fluid dynamics)
83.50.Rp Wall slip and apparent slip
83.50.Uv Material processing (extension, molding, etc.)
83.50.Xa Mixing and blending
83.60.-a Material behavior
83.60.Bc Linear viscoelasticity
83.60.Df Nonlinear viscoelasticity
83.60.Fg Shear rate dependent viscosity
83.60.Hc Normal stress differences and their effects (e.g. rod climbing)
83.60.Jk Extrudate swell
83.60.La Viscoplasticity; yield stress
83.60.Np Effects of electric and magnetic fields
83.60.Pq Time-dependent structure (thixotropy, rheopexy)
83.60.Rs Shear rate-dependent structure (shear thinning and shear thickening)
83.60.St Non-isothermal rheology
83.60.Uv Wave propagation, fracture, and crack healing
83.60.Wc Flow instabilities
83.60.Yz Drag reduction
83.80.-k Material type (see also 82.70.-y Disperse systems; complex fluids and 82.35.-x Polymers: properties; reactions; polymerization in physical chemistry and chemical physics)
83.80.Ab Solids: e.g., composites, glasses, semicrystalline polymers
83.80.Fg Granular solids
83.80.Gv Electro- and magnetorheological fluids
83.80.Hj Suspensions, dispersions, pastes, slurries, colloids
83.80.Iz Emulsions and foams
83.80.Jx Reacting systems: thermosetting polymers, chemorheology, rheokinetics
83.80.Kn Physical gels and microgels
83.80.Lz Physiological materials (e.g. blood, collagen, etc.)
83.80.Mc Other natural materials (e.g. wood and other vegetable materials)
83.80.Nb Geological materials: Earth, magma, ice, rocks, etc.
83.80.Qr Surfactant and micellar systems, associated polymers
83.80.Rs Polymer solutions
83.80.Sg Polymer melts
83.80.Tc Polymer blends
83.80.Uv Block copolymers
83.80.Va Elastomeric polymers
83.80.Wx Filled elastomers
83.80.Xz Liquid crystals: nematic, cholesteric, smectic, discotic, etc.
83.80.Ya Processed food
83.85.-c Techniques and apparatus
83.85.Cg Rheological measurements—rheometry
83.85.Ei Optical methods; rheo-optics
83.85.Fg NMR/magnetic resonance imaging (see also 76.60.Pc NMR imaging in condensed matter)
83.85.Hf X-ray and neutron scattering
83.85.Jn Viscosity measurements
83.85.Lq Normal stress difference measurements
83.85.Ns Data analysis (interconversion of data computation of relaxation and retardation spectra; time-temperature superposition, etc.) (see also 47.11.-j Computational methods in fluid dynamics)
83.85.Rx Extensional flow measurement
83.85.St Stress relaxation
83.85.Tz Creep and/or creep recoil
83.85.Vb Small amplitude oscillatory shear (dynamic mechanical analysis)
83.90.+s Other topics in rheology (restricted to new topics in section 83)
84. Electronics; radiowave and microwave technology; direct energy conversion and storage
84.30.-r Electronic circuits (for integrated circuits, see 85.40.-e, for microwave circuits, see 84.40.Dc)
84.30.Bv Circuit theory
84.30.Jc Power electronics; power supply circuits (see also 84.70.+p High-current and high-voltage technology; for superconducting high-power technology, see 84.71.-b)
84.30.Le Amplifiers
84.30.Ng Oscillators, pulse generators, and function generators
84.30.Qi Modulators and demodulators; discriminators, comparators, mixers, limiters, and compressors
84.30.Sk Pulse and digital circuits
84.30.Vn Filters
84.32.-y Passive circuit components (see also 07.50.-e Electrical and electronic instruments, and components)
84.32.Dd Connectors, relays, and switches
84.32.Ff Conductors, resistors (including thermistors, varistors, and photoresistors)
84.32.Hh Inductors and coils; wiring
84.32.Tt Capacitors (for electrochemical capacitors and supercapacitors, see 82.47.Uv)
84.32.Vv Fuses
84.35.+i Neural networks (for optical neural networks, see 42.79.Ta; see also 07.05.Mh Neural networks, fuzzy logic, artificial intelligence in computers in experimental physics; 87.18.Sn in biological complexity)
84.37.+q Measurements in electric variables (including voltage, current, resistance, capacitance, inductance, impedance, and admittance, etc.)
84.40.-x Radiowave and microwave (including millimeter wave) technology (for microwave, submillimeter wave, and radiowave receivers and detectors, see 07.57.Kp; for microwave and radiowave spectrometers, see 07.57.Pt; for radiowave propagation, see 41.20.Jb)
84.40.Az Waveguides, transmission lines, striplines
84.40.Ba Antennas: theory, components and accessories (for plasma interactions with antennas, see 52.40.Fd in plasma physics)
84.40.Dc Microwave circuits
84.40.Fe Microwave tubes (e.g., klystrons, magnetrons, traveling-wave, backward-wave tubes, etc.)
84.40.Ik Masers; gyrotrons (cyclotron-resonance masers)
84.40.Lj Microwave integrated electronics
84.40.Ua Telecommunications: signal transmission and processing; communication satellites (for optical communications, see 42.79.Sz in optics)
84.40.Xb Telemetry: remote control, remote sensing; radar
84.47.+w Vacuum tubes (see also 85.45.-w Vacuum microelectronics)
... ... ... Phototubes, see 85.60.Ha
... ... ... Microwave tubes, see 84.40.Fe
84.50.+d Electric motors
84.60.-h Direct energy conversion and storage (see also section 88.00.00 Renewable energy resources and applications; for electrochemical conversion, see 82.47.-a; for ocean energy extraction, see 92.05.Jn)
84.60.Bk Performance characteristics of energy conversion systems; figure of merit
84.60.Jt Photoelectric conversion (for solar cells, see 88.40.H- and 88.40.J- in renewable energy resources; for solar collectors and concentrators, see 42.79.Ek in optics and 88.40.F- in renewable energy resources)
84.60.Lw Magnetohydrodynamic conversion (for MHD generators, see 52.75.Fk—in plasma physics)
84.60.Ny Thermionic conversion (for thermionic generators, see 52.75.Fk—in plasma physics)
84.60.Rb Thermoelectric, electrogasdynamic and other direct energy conversion
84.60.Ve Energy storage systems, including capacitor banks (see also 82.47.Uv Electrochemical capacitors; supercapacitors, and 88.80.F- Energy storage technologies)
84.70.+p High-current and high-voltage technology: power systems; power transmission lines and cables (for superconducting cables, see 84.71.Fk)
84.71.-b Superconducting high-power technology (see also 84.30.Jc Power electronics; power supply circuits)
84.71.Ba Superconducting magnets; magnetic levitation devices
84.71.Fk Superconducting cables
84.71.Mn Superconducting wires, fibers, and tapes
84.90.+a Other topics in electronics, radiowave and microwave technology, and direct energy conversion and storage (restricted to new topics in section 84)
85. Electronic and magnetic devices; microelectronics (for vacuum tubes, see 84.47.+w; for microwave tubes, see 84.40.Fe, for conductors, and resistors, see 84.32.Ff; for wiring, inductors and coils, see 84.32.Hh)
85.25.-j Superconducting devices
85.25.Am Superconducting device characterization, design, and modeling
85.25.Cp Josephson devices
85.25.Dq Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs)
85.25.Hv Superconducting logic elements and memory devices; microelectronic circuits
85.25.Oj Superconducting optical, X-ray, and γ-ray detectors (SIS, NIS, transition edge)
85.25.Pb Superconducting infrared, submillimeter and millimeter wave detectors (see also 84.71.-b Superconducting high-power technology)
85.25.Qc Superconducting surface acoustic wave devices and other superconducting devices
85.30.-z Semiconductor devices (for photodiodes, phototransistors, and photoresistors, see 85.60.Dw; for laser diodes, see 42.55.Px; for semiconductor-based solar cells, see 88.40.-j; for applications of dielectric films in silicon electronics, see 77.55.df)
85.30.De Semiconductor-device characterization, design, and modeling
85.30.Fg Bulk semiconductor and conductivity oscillation devices (including Hall effect devices, space-charge-limited devices, and Gunn effect devices)
85.30.Hi Surface barrier, boundary, and point contact devices
85.30.Kk Junction diodes
85.30.Mn Junction breakdown and tunneling devices (including resonance tunneling devices)
85.30.Pq Bipolar transistors
85.30.Rs Thyristors
85.30.Tv Field effect devices
85.35.-p Nanoelectronic devices
85.35.Be Quantum well devices (quantum dots, quantum wires, etc.)
85.35.Ds Quantum interference devices
85.35.Gv Single electron devices
85.35.Kt Nanotube devices
85.40.-e Microelectronics: LSI, VLSI, ULSI; integrated circuit fabrication technology (see also 85.45.-w Vacuum microelectronics; 84.40.Lj Microwave integrated electronics; 42.82.-m Integrated optics; 85.25.Hv Superconducting logic elements and memory devices; microelectronic circuits)
85.40.Bh Computer-aided design of microcircuits; layout and modeling
85.40.Hp Lithography, masks and pattern transfer
... ... ... Micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) and devices, see 85.85.+j
85.40.Ls Metallization, contacts, interconnects; device isolation
85.40.Qx Microcircuit quality, noise, performance, and failure analysis
85.40.Ry Impurity doping, diffusion and ion implantation technology
85.40.Sz Deposition technology (for plasma applications in deposition technology, see 52.77.Dq)
85.40.Xx Hybrid microelectronics; thick films
85.45.-w Vacuum microelectronics
85.45.Bz Vacuum microelectronic device characterization, design, and modeling
85.45.Db Field emitters and arrays, cold electron emitters
85.45.Fd Field emission displays (FEDs)
85.50.-n Dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric devices
85.50.Gk Non-volatile ferroelectric memories
85.60.-q Optoelectronic devices (see also 42.79.-e Optical elements, devices and systems)
85.60.Bt Optoelectronic device characterization, design, and modeling
85.60.Dw Photodiodes; phototransistors; photoresistors
85.60.Gz Photodetectors (including infrared and CCD detectors) (for superconducting infrared detectors, see 85.25.Pb; for superconducting optical, x-ray and γ-ray detectors, see 85.25.Oj; see also 07.57.Kp in instruments)
85.60.Ha Photomultipliers; phototubes and photocathodes
85.60.Jb Light-emitting devices
85.60.Pg Display systems (for field emission display, see 85.45.Fd, for optical display devices, see 42.79.Kr; for electrochemical displays, see 82.47.Tp; see also 07.07.Hj Display and recording equipment, oscilloscopes, TV cameras, etc.)
85.65.+h Molecular electronic devices
85.70.-w Magnetic devices (for magnets, see 07.55.Db; for molecular magnets, see 75.50.Xx; for beam bending magnets, see 41.85.Lc; see also 84.71.Ba Superconducting magnets and magnetic levitation devices; 75.50.Ss Magnetic recording materials)
85.70.Ay Magnetic device characterization, design, and modeling
85.70.Ec Magnetostrictive, magnetoacoustic, and magnetostatic devices (for magnetostrictive transducers, see 43.38.Ct—in Acoustics Appendix)
85.70.Ge Ferrite and garnet devices
85.70.Kh Magnetic thin film devices: magnetic heads (magnetoresistive, inductive, etc.); domain-motion devices, etc.
85.70.Li Other magnetic recording and storage devices (including tapes, disks, and drums)
85.70.Rp Magnetic levitation, propulsion and control devices
85.70.Sq Magnetooptical devices
85.75.-d Magnetoelectronics; spintronics: devices exploiting spin polarized transport or integrated magnetic fields
85.75.Bb Magnetic memory using giant magnetoresistance
85.75.Dd Magnetic memory using magnetic tunnel junctions
85.75.Ff Reprogrammable magnetic logic
85.75.Hh Spin polarized field effect transistors
85.75.Mm Spin polarized resonant tunnel junctions
85.75.Nn Hybrid Hall devices
85.75.Ss Magnetic field sensors using spin polarized transport
85.80.-b Thermoelectromagnetic and other devices (for acoustoelectric devices, see 43.38.-p in Acoustics Appendix; for electrochemical devices, see 82.47.-a)
85.80.Fi Thermoelectric devices
85.80.Jm Magnetoelectric devices
85.80.Lp Magnetothermal devices
85.85.+j Micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) and devices
85.90.+h Other topics in electronic and magnetic devices and microelectronics (restricted to new topics in section 85)
87. Biological and medical physics
87.10.-e General theory and mathematical aspects
87.10.Ca Analytical theories
87.10.Ed Ordinary differential equations (ODE), partial differential equations (PDE), integrodifferential models
87.10.Hk Lattice models
87.10.Kn Finite element calculations
87.10.Mn Stochastic modeling
87.10.Pq Elasticity theory
87.10.Rt Monte Carlo simulations
87.10.Tf Molecular dynamics simulation
87.10.Vg Biological information
87.14.-g Biomolecules: types
87.14.Cc Lipids
87.14.Df Carbohydrates
87.14.E- Proteins
87.14.ef Peptides
87.14.ej Enzymes
87.14.em Fibrils (amyloids, collagen, etc.)
87.14.ep Membrane proteins Generic models (lattice, HP, etc.)
87.14.G- Nucleic acids Nucleotides
87.14.gk DNA RNA
87.14.Lk Hormones
87.14.Pq Vitamins
87.15.-v Biomolecules: structure and physical properties (for NMR of biomolecules, see 82.56.Pp)
87.15.A- Theory, modeling, and computer simulation Analytical theories Quantum calculations
87.15.ak Monte Carlo simulations
87.15.ap Molecular dynamics simulation
87.15.B- Structure of biomolecules Secondary structure Tertiary structure
87.15.bk Structure of aggregates
87.15.Cc Folding: thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, models, and pathways (see also Folding dynamics)
87.15.Fh Bonding; mechanisms of bond breakage
87.15.H- Dynamics of biomolecules
87.15.hg Dynamics of intermolecular interactions
87.15.hj Transport dynamics Folding dynamics
87.15.hp Conformational changes Ultrafast dynamics; charge transfer
87.15.K- Molecular interactions; membrane-protein interactions
87.15.kj Protein-polynucleotide interactions Protein-protein interactions Protein-ligand interactions Protein-solvent interactions
87.15.kt Protein-membrane interactions
87.15.La Mechanical properties
87.15.M- Spectra of biomolecules Photodissociation Photoionization Luminescence
87.15.N- Properties of solutions of macromolecules Dissolution Aggregation
87.15.nt Crystallization
87.15.Pc Electronic and electrical properties
87.15.Qt Sequence analysis
87.15.R- Reactions and kinetics (see also 82.39.-k Chemical kinetics in biological systems in physical chemistry)
87.15.rp Polymerization (see also 82.35.Pq Biopolymers, biopolymerization in physical chemistry) Dissociation
87.15.Tt Electrophoresis (see also 82.45.-h Electrochemistry and electrophoresis)
87.15.Vv Diffusion
87.15.Ya Fluctuations
87.15.Zg Phase transitions
87.16.-b Subcellular structure and processes
87.16.A- Theory, modeling, and simulations Analytical theories Monte Carlo calculations
87.16.aj Lattice models
87.16.D- Membranes, bilayers, and vesicles Dynamics and fluctuations Mechanical properties and rheology
87.16.dp Transport, including channels, pores, and lateral diffusion
87.16.dr Assembly and interactions
87.16.dt Structure, static correlations, domains, and rafts
87.16.Gj Cell walls
87.16.Ka Filaments, microtubules, their networks, and supramolecular assemblies
87.16.Ln Cytoskeleton
87.16.Mq Morphology of nerve cells
87.16.Nn Motor proteins (myosin, kinesin dynein)
87.16.Qp Pseudopods, lamellipods, cilia, and flagella
87.16.Sr Chromosomes, histones
87.16.Tb Mitochondria and other organelles
87.16.Uv Active transport processes
87.16.Vy Ion channels
87.16.Wd Intracellular trafficking
87.16.Xa Signal transduction and intracellular signaling
87.16.Yc Regulatory genetic and chemical networks
87.16.Zg Nuclear morphology
87.17.-d Cell processes
87.17.Aa Modeling, computer simulation of cell processes
87.17.Ee Growth and division
87.17.Jj Cell locomotion, chemotaxis
87.17.Pq Morphogenesis
87.17.Rt Cell adhesion and cell mechanics
87.17.Uv Biotechnology of cell processes
87.18.-h Biological complexity (see also 82.39.Rt Reactions in complex biological systems in physical chemistry)
87.18.Cf Genetic switches and networks
87.18.Ed Cell aggregation
87.18.Fx Multicellular phenomena, biofilms
87.18.Gh Cell-cell communication; collective behavior of motile cells
87.18.Hf Spatiotemporal pattern formation in cellular populations
87.18.Mp Signal transduction networks
87.18.Nq Large-scale biological processes and integrative biophysics
87.18.Sn Neural networks and synaptic communication
87.18.Tt Noise in biological systems
87.18.Vf Systems biology
87.18.Wd Genomics
87.18.Xr Proteomics
87.18.Yt Circadian rhythms
87.19.-j Properties of higher organisms
87.19.Ff Muscles
87.19.Hh Cardiac dynamics
87.19.L- Neuroscience Action potential propagation and axons Noise in the nervous system
87.19.ld Electrodynamics in the nervous system
87.19.le EEG and MEG
87.19.lf MRI: anatomic, functional, spectral, diffusion
87.19.lg Synapses: chemical and electrical (gap junctions)
87.19.lh Optical imaging of neuronal activity
87.19.lj Neuronal network dynamics Glia
87.19.ll Models of single neurons and networks
87.19.lm Synchronization in the nervous system
87.19.ln Oscillations and resonance
87.19.lo Information theory
87.19.lp Pattern formation: activity and anatomic
87.19.lq Neuronal wave propagation Control theory and feedback Encoding, decoding, and transformation Sensory systems: visual, auditory, tactile, taste, and olfaction (for Neurophysiology of speech perception, see 43.71.Qr and 43.72.Qr Auditory synthesis and recognition in Acoustics Appendix; 42.66.-p Physiological optics) Motor systems: Locomotion, flight, vocalization Learning and memory
87.19.lw Plasticity
87.19.lx Development and growth Energetics
87.19.Pp Biothermics and thermal processes in biology
87.19.R- Mechanical and electrical properties of tissues and organs
87.19.rd Elastic properties
87.19.rf Dielectric properties
87.19.rh Fluid transport and rheology
87.19.rj Contraction
87.19.rm Structure
87.19.rp Impulse propagation Movement Locomotion
87.19.U- Hemodynamics Heart and lung dynamics
87.19.uj Peripheral vascular dynamics Blood-brain barrier
87.19.Wx Pneumodyamics, respiration
87.19.X- Diseases
87.19.xb Bacterial diseases
87.19.xd Viral diseases
87.19.xe Parasitic diseases
87.19.xg Fungal diseases
87.19.xh Prion diseases
87.19.xj Cancer
87.19.xk Genetic diseases
87.19.xm Epilepsy
87.19.xn Musculoskeletal diseases
87.19.xp Motor system disease (Parkinson's, etc.)
87.19.xq Stroke
87.19.xr Degenerative diseases (Alzheimer's, ALS, etc)
87.19.xt Developmental diseases
87.19.xu Gastrointestinal diseases
87.19.xv Endocrine diseases
87.19.xw Immune system diseases
87.23.-n Ecology and evolution
87.23.Cc Population dynamics and ecological pattern formation
87.23.Ge Dynamics of social systems
87.23.Kg Dynamics of evolution
87.50.-a Effects of electromagnetic and acoustic fields on biological systems
87.50.C- Static and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields effects Biophysical mechanisms of interaction Electrophoresis/dielectrophoresis and other mechanical effects (see also 87.15.Tt Electrophoresis)
87.50.cj Electroporation/membrane effects Dosimetry/exposure assessment
87.50.ct Therapeutic applications
87.50.S- Radiofrequency/microwave fields effects Biophysical mechanisms of interaction Dosimetry/exposure assessment Therapeutic applications
87.50.U- Millimeter/terahertz fields effects
87.50.uj Biophysical mechanisms of interaction
87.50.up Dosimetry/exposure assessment
87.50.ux Therapeutic applications
87.50.W- Optical/infrared radiation effects Biophysical mechanisms of interaction
87.50.wj Dosimetry/exposure assessment
87.50.wp Therapeutic applications
87.50.Y- Biological effects of acoustic and ultrasonic energy
87.50.yg Biophysical mechanisms of interaction
87.50.yk Dosimetry/exposure assessment Therapeutic applications
87.53.-j Effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems
87.53.Ay Biophysical mechanisms of interaction
87.53.Bn Dosimetry/exposure assessment
87.53.Jw Therapeutic applications, including brachytherapy
87.53.Kn Conformal radiation treatment
87.53.Ly Stereotactic radiosurgery
87.55.-x Treatment strategy
87.55.D- Treatment planning Optimization
87.55.dh Tissue response Dose-volume analysis
87.55.Gh Simulation
87.55.K- Monte Carlo methods
87.55.kd Algorithms Applications Verification
87.55.N- Radiation monitoring, control, and safety Therapeutic applications
87.55.Qr Quality assurance in radiotherapy
87.55.T- Record and verify systems and applications Design Applications
87.56.-v Radiation therapy equipment
87.56.B- Radiation sources Accelerators Radioactive sources
87.56.Da Ancillary equipment
87.56.Fc Quality assurance equipment
87.56.J- Collimation
87.56.jf Field size
87.56.jk Field shaping
87.56.N- Beam intensity modifications Wedges and compensators
87.56.nk Collimators
87.57.-s Medical imaging
87.57.C- Image quality Spatial resolution
87.57.cj Contrast Noise
87.57.cp Artifacts and distortion
87.57.N- Image analysis Reconstruction
87.57.nj Registration
87.57.nm Segmentation Smoothing
87.57.nt Edge enhancement
87.57.Q- Computed tomography
87.57.qh Single-slice
87.57.qp Multislice
87.57.R- Computer-aided diagnosis
87.57.rh Mammography
87.57.U- Nuclear medicine imaging
87.57.ue Conventional nuclear medicine imaging
87.57.uh Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) Positron emission tomography (PET)
87.57.un Radiopharmaceuticals
87.57.uq Dosimetry
87.57.Va Neutron imaging; neutron tomography
87.59.-e X-ray imaging
87.59.B- Radiography Computed radiography Digital radiography
87.59.C- Fluoroscopy Digital fluoroscopy
87.59.Dj Angiography
87.59.E- Mammography Film mammography
87.59.ej Digital mammography
87.61.-c Magnetic resonance imaging
87.61.Bj Theory and principles
87.61.Ff Instrumentation
87.61.Hk Pulse sequences
87.61.Jc Anatomic imaging
87.61.Np Flow imaging
87.61.Qr Functional imaging
87.61.Tg Clinical applications
87.63.-d Non-ionizing radiation equipment and techniques
87.63.D- Ultrasonography
87.63.dh Ultrasonographic imaging Doppler
87.63.Hg Thermography
87.63.L- Visual imaging
87.63.lg Principles of visualization
87.63.lj Image perception
87.63.lm Image enhancement
87.63.lp Transillumination Laser imaging
87.63.Pn Electrical impedance tomography (EIT)
87.63.St Bone densitometry
87.64.-t Spectroscopic and microscopic techniques in biophysics and medical physics
87.64.Aa Computer simulation
87.64.Bx Electron, neutron and x-ray diffraction and scattering
87.64.Cc Scattering of visible, uv, and infrared radiation
87.64.Dz Scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy
87.64.Ee Electron microscopy
87.64.K- Spectroscopy
87.64.kd X-ray and EXAFS EPR
87.64.kj NMR Infrared Raman
87.64.ks Electron and photoelectron
87.64.ku Magnetic circular dichroism
87.64.kv Fluorescence
87.64.kx Mössbauer
87.64.M- Optical microscopy Bright field Dark field Phase contrast and DIC Confocal Multiphoton Near-field scanning
87.80.-y Biophysical techniques (research methods)
87.80.Cc Optical trapping (see also 42.50.Wk Mechanical effects of light on material media, microstructure and particles in optics; 37.10.-x Atom, molecule, and ion cooling methods)
87.80.Dj Spectroscopies
87.80.Ek Mechanical and micromechanical techniques
87.80.Fe Micromanipulation of biological structures
87.80.Jg Patch clamping and other physiological measurements
87.80.Kc Electrochemical techniques
87.80.Lg Magnetic and paramagnetic resonance
87.80.Nj Single-molecule techniques (see also 82.37.Rs Single molecule manipulation of proteins and other biological molecules in physical chemistry)
87.80.Qk Biochemical separation processes
87.80.St Genomic techniques
87.80.Un Proteomic techniques
87.85.-d Biomedical engineering
87.85.D- Applied neuroscience
87.85.dd Brain-machine interfaces
87.85.dh Cells on a chip Physical models of neurophysiological processes
87.85.dq Neural networks
87.85.E- Neural prosthetics Electrode stimulation
87.85.ej Safe limits of charge injection
87.85.em Tissue damage
87.85.F- Smart prosthetics
87.85.ff Feedback
87.85.fh Feedforward Biosensors
87.85.fp Bidirectional communication
87.85.G- Biomechanics Fluid mechanics and rheology
87.85.gj Movement and locomotion Mechanical systems
87.85.J- Biomaterials
87.85.jc Electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of biological matter
87.85.jf Bio-based materials
87.85.jj Biocompatibility
87.85.Lf Tissue engineering
87.85.M- Biotechnology (for biotechnology of cell processes, see 87.17.Uv) Genetic engineering Genomics Proteomics
87.85.Ng Biological signal processing
87.85.Ox Biomedical instrumentation and transducers, including micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)
87.85.Pq Biomedical imaging
87.85.Qr Nanotechnologies-design
87.85.Rs Nanotechnologies-applications
87.85.St Robotics
87.85.Tu Modeling biomedical systems
87.85.Uv Micromanipulators
87.85.Va Micromachining
87.85.Wc Neural engineering (for neural prosthetics, see 87.85.E-)
87.85.Xd Dynamical, regulatory, and integrative biology
87.90.+y Other topics in biological and medical physics (restricted to new topics in section 87)
88. Renewable energy resources and applications (for nuclear power see 89.30.Gg and 89.30.Jj)
88.05.-b Energy analysis
88.05.Bc Energy efficiency; definitions and standards
88.05.De Thermodynamic constraints on energy production (see also 05.70.-a Thermodynamics)
88.05.Ec Renewable energy targets
88.05.Gh Energy conservation; electricity demand reduction
88.05.Hj Energy content issues; life cycle analysis
88.05.Jk Policy issues; resource assessment
88.05.Lg Economic issues; sustainability; cost trends
88.05.Np Environmental aspects
88.05.Pq Emissions trading and CDM
88.05.Qr Energy use in agriculture (see also 91.62.Bf Agricultural systems in Geophysics Appendix)
88.05.Rt Energy use in appliances and electronic equipment
88.05.Sv Energy use in heating and cooling of residential and commercial buildings (for solar heating and cooling of residential and commercial buildings, see; for geothermal energy use in heating and cooling of buildings, see
88.05.Tg Energy use in lighting (for solar energy use in lighting, see, and
88.05.Vx Energy use in industry and manufacturing (see also 89.20.Bb Industrial and technological research and development)
88.05.Xj Energy use in transportation (see also 88.85.-r Advanced vehicles)
88.10.-g Geothermal energy (see also 91.35.Dc Heat flow; geothermy)
88.10.C- Ground heat Geothermal heat pumps Global geothermal flux Continental geothermal energy
88.10.cj Oceanic geothermal energy Heating and cooling of buildings; space heating (for solar heating and cooling of residential and commercial buildings, see
88.10.Eb Hot dry rock (igneous systems)
88.10.F- Hydrothermal reservoirs (see also 92.05.Lf Hydrothermal systems in oceanography; 91.40.Ge Hydrothermal systems in volcanology)
88.10.fb Hot springs
88.10.fe Hot water from wells
88.10.fh Down hole pumps
88.10.G- Reservoir engineering (enhanced geothermal systems)
88.10.gc Simulation; prediction models Imaging fluid flow
88.10.gk High-temperature logging tools and sensors Fracture characterization of rocks Site characterization; zonal isolation
88.10.H- Geothermal electricity production
88.10.hd Dry steam plants
88.10.hf Flash steam plants
88.10.hh Binary-cycle steam plants
88.10.J- Brines and their dissolved matter
88.10.jj Mineral extraction
88.10.jn Metals extraction Combined minerals and metals extraction
88.20.-j Biomass energy
88.20.D- Biomass energy sources
88.20.dd Wood
88.20.df Food crops
88.20.dh Grassy and woody plants Agriculture/forestry residues Aquatic/marine sources
88.20.dp Cellolusic materials
88.20.dr Food wastes
88.20.dt Municipal and industrial wastes
88.20.dv Methane from landfills
88.20.F- Renewable alternative fuels from biomass energy (for fossil fuels, see 89.30.A-)
88.20.ff Ethanol (see also 88.85.mj ethanol in alternative fuels for advanced vehicles)
88.20.fg Methanol
88.20.fh Butanol Mixed alcohols Biodiesel (see also 88.85.mb Biodiesel in alternative fuels for advanced vehicles)
88.20.fn Hydrogen (see also Hydrogen in alternative fuels for advanced vehicles)
88.20.fq Methane Solid pelletized fuel
88.20.fs Syngas
88.20.ft Vegetable oils
88.20.fv Bioethers
88.20.fw Bioaviation fuel
88.20.G- Methane production
88.20.gc Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquids (hydrocarbons) Decaying organic matter Anaerobic digestion
88.20.H- Biomass processing routes
88.20.hh Biochemical route
88.20.hj Thermochemical route
88.20.J- Biomass conversion methods
88.20.jj Combustion Hydrolysis and fermentation Extraction and esterification
88.20.jr Alternate photosynthetic pathways
88.20.M- Biopower systems Direct-firing systems Cofiring systems Gasification systems; syngas Pyrolysis to liquids Paper mills
88.20.R- Bioproducts from biomass
88.20.rb Plastics
88.20.rg Glues
88.20.rm Acids
88.20.rp Wood adhesives
88.20.rr Foam insulation
88.20.T- Markets for renewable alternative fuels (for alternative fuels for advanced vehicles, see 88.85.M-) Heat Combined heat and power Transportation fuels Chemicals
88.20.Y- Social issues
88.20.yq Food versus fuel debate
88.30.-k Hydrogen and fuel cell technology (for hydrogen as a renewable alternative fuel, see 88.20.fn; for hydrogen as an alternative fuel in advanced vehicles, see
88.30.E- Hydrogen production with renewable energy
88.30.ej Thermochemical hydrogen
88.30.em Electrolytic hydrogen
88.30.ep Electrochemical photolytic hydrogen Biological photolytic hydrogen Reforming biomass and wastes
88.30.ew Water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction
88.30.G- Fuel cell systems Design and simulation
88.30.J- Fuel cell components
88.30.jn Fuel cell stack Fuel processor
88.30.jr Current converter
88.30.jt Heat recovery system
88.30.M- Fuel cell component materials Inorganic proton conductors
88.30.mj Composite materials
88.30.Nn Corrosion protection
88.30.P- Types of fuel cells (see also 82.47.-a Applied electrochemistry)
88.30.pd Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEM) Direct methanol fuel cells Alkaline fuel cells
88.30.pj Phosphoric acid fuel cells Molten carbonate fuel cells Solid oxide fuel cells
88.30.pp Regenerative fuel cells
88.30.R- Hydrogen storage
88.30.rd Inorganic metal hydrides
88.30.rf Organics
88.30.rh Carbon nanotubes
88.30.rj Hydrocarbons and alcohols liquid systems
88.40.-j Solar energy
88.40.F- Solar concentrators (see also 42.79.Ek Solar collectors and concentrators in optics)
88.40.fc Modeling and analysis
88.40.ff Performance testing
88.40.fh Advanced materials development Parabolic-trough mirrors Dish/engine systems
88.40.fp Power tower systems Concentrating collectors
88.40.H- Solar cells (photovoltaics)
88.40.hj Efficiency and performance of solar cells Cost of production of solar cells
88.40.J- Types of solar cells
88.40.jj Silicon solar cells Thin film III-V and II-VI based solar cells
88.40.jn Thin film Cu-based I-III-VI2 solar cells Multijunction solar cells
88.40.jr Organic photovoltaics
88.40.M- Residential and commercial buildings Solar heating and cooling systems Active space/water heating
88.40.mj Passive space/water heating Pool heating systems Grid-tied solar electric systems Building-integrated photovoltaics Roof top shingles Building facades Day lighting/natural lighting of buildings Outdoor solar lights
88.50.-k Wind energy
88.50.G- Wind turbines Research and development
88.50.gj Modeling, design Components Testing
88.50.J- Wind farms
88.50.jj Small-scale wind farms
88.50.jn Large-scale wind farms Off-shore wind farms
88.50.Mp Electricity generation, grid integration from wind (see also 84.70.+p High-current and high-voltage technology: power systems; power transmission lines and cables; see also 88.80.-q Energy delivery and storage)
88.50.Xy Social issues regarding wind energy
88.60.-m Hydroelectric power (see also 84.70.+p High-current and high-voltage technology: power systems; power transmission lines and cables)
88.60.J- Conventional hydropower
88.60.jb Impoundment facilities, dams Diversion facilities
88.60.jg Pumped storage facilities
88.60.K- Hydroturbines
88.60.kc Cross-flow turbines
88.60.kf Francis hydropower turbines
88.60.kj Free-flow turbines Impulse turbines Pelton hydropower turbines Propeller turbines
88.60.kt Reaction turbines
88.60.N- Emerging hydropower technologies Energy from ocean waves (see also 92.05.Jn Ocean energy extraction in oceanography)
88.60.nh Tidal energy
88.60.nj Marine thermal gradients
88.60.nm Energy from ocean currents Natural water flow in rivers Ocean thermal energy
88.80.-q Energy delivery and storage
88.80.Cd Grid-connected distributed energy resources
88.80.F- Energy storage technologies (see also 84.60.Ve Energy storage systems, including capacitor banks)
88.80.ff Batteries (for lithium-ion batteries, see 82.47.Aa; for lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride batteries, see 82.47.Cb; see also 88.85.jk, and in advanced vehicles)
88.80.fh Supercapacitors (see also 82.47.Uv Electrochemical capacitors; supercapacitors) Superconducting magnetic energy storage (see also 84.71.-b Superconducting high-power technology)
88.80.H- Electric power transmission (see also 84.70.+p High-current and high-voltage technology: power systems; power transmission lines and cables; and 84.71.-b Superconducting high-power technology)
88.80.hh Transmission grids
88.80.hj High-voltage direct current transmission ac power transmission
88.80.hp Radio-frequency power transmission Superconducting cables (see also 84.71.Fk Superconducting cables in superconducting high power technology) Wireless power transmission
88.80.Kg Energy delivery infrastructure
88.85.-r Advanced vehicles
88.85.Cd Fuel cell vehicles (FCVs)
88.85.Fg Plug-in hybrid vehicles (HEVs)
88.85.Hj Electric vehicles (EVs)
88.85.J- Vehicle energy storage
88.85.jk Lead-acid batteries (for lead-acid batteries in applied electrochemistry, see 82.47.Cb) Nickel-metal hydride batteries (for nickel-metal hydride batteries in applied electrochemistry, see 82.47.Cb) Ultracapacitors
88.85.M- Alternative fuels for advanced vehicles
88.85.mb Biodiesel (see also Biodiesel in renewable alternative fuels) Propane Natural gas Hydrogen (see also 88.20.fn Hydrogen in renewable alternative fuels)
88.85.mj Ethanol (see also 88.20.ff Ethanol in renewable alternative fuels) Fuel blends
88.85.Pq Fueling stations for advanced vehicles
88.90.+t Other topics in renewable energy and applications (restricted to new topics in section 88)
89. Other areas of applied and interdisciplinary physics (for materials science, see section 81; for physical chemistry, see section 82; for rheology, see section 83; for electrical, radiowave and microwave technology, see section 84; for electronic and magnetic devices and microelectronics, see section 85; for biological and medical physics, see section 87)
89.20.-a Interdisciplinary applications of physics
89.20.Bb Industrial and technological research and development
89.20.Dd Military technology and weapons systems; arms control
89.20.Ff Computer science and technology
89.20.Hh World Wide Web, Internet
89.20.Kk Engineering (for electrochemical engineering, see 82.47.Wx; for biomedical engineering, see 87.85.-d; for reservoir engineering in geothermal energy, see 88.10.G-; for nuclear engineering, see 28.00.00)
89.20.Mn Forensic science (for forensic acoustics, see 43.72.Uv—in Acoustics Appendix)
89.30.-g Fossil fuels and nuclear power (for renewable energy resources, see section 88)
89.30.A- Fossil fuels Coal
89.30.aj Oil, petroleum Natural gas
89.30.Gg Nuclear fission power (for fission reactors, see 28.41.-i and 28.50.-k in nuclear physics)
89.30.Jj Nuclear fusion power (for fusion reactors, see 28.52.-s in nuclear physics)
89.40.-a Transportation
89.40.Bb Land transportation
89.40.Cc Water transportation
89.40.Dd Air transporation
89.60.-k Environmental studies (for ecology, see 87.23.-n; for environmental impacts of renewable energy, see 88.05.Np)
89.60.Ec Environmental safety (for air quality, see 92.60.Sz; for water quality, see 92.40.kc, and 92.40.qc in Geophysics Appendix)
89.60.Fe Environmental regulations (see also 01.78.+p Science and government)
89.60.Gg Impact of natural and man-made disasters (for volcanic eruption effects on the atmosphere, see 92.60.Zc; for landslides, see 92.40.Ha; for floods, see 92.40.qp in Geophysics Appendix; for avalanches, see 92.40.vw in Geophysics Appendix; for global warming, see 92.70.Mn, for sea level change, see 92.70.Jw; for cryospheric change, see 92.70.Ha)
89.65.-s Social and economic systems
89.65.Cd Demographic studies
89.65.Ef Social organizations; anthropology
89.65.Gh Economics; econophysics, financial markets, business and management (for economic issues regarding production and use of renewable energy, see 88.05.Lg)
89.65.Lm Urban planning and construction (for energy efficient buildings utilizing solar power, see 88.40.M-)
89.70.-a Information and communication theory (for telecommunications, see 84.40.Ua; for optical communications, see 42.79.Sz; for quantum information, see 03.67.-a; for applications to neuroscience, see 87.19.lo)
89.70.Cf Entropy and other measures of information
89.70.Eg Computational complexity
89.70.Hj Communication complexity
89.70.Kn Channel capacity and error-correcting codes
89.75.-k Complex systems (for complex chemical systems, see 82.40.Qt; for biological complexity, see 87.18.-h)
89.75.Da Systems obeying scaling laws
89.75.Fb Structures and organization in complex systems
89.75.Hc Networks and genealogical trees
89.75.Kd Patterns
89.90.+n Other topics in areas of applied and interdisciplinary physics (restricted to new topics in section 89)


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