PACS Reg80

PACS 2010 Regular Edition—Sec. 80

80. INTERDISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
 
81. Materials science
 
81.05.-t Specific materials: fabrication, treatment, testing, and analysis (for superconducting materials, see 74.70.-b, and 74.72.-h; for magnetic materials, see 75.50.-y; for optical materials, see 42.70.-a; for dielectric materials, see 77.84.-s; for disperse systems and complex fluids, see 82.70.-y; see also 82.75.-z Molecular sieves, zeolites, clathrates, and other complex solids; for materials properties, see sections 60 and 70)
... ... ... Superconducting materials, see 74.70.-b and 74.72.-h
... ... ... Magnetic materials, see 75.50.-y
... ... ... Optical materials, see 42.70.-a
... ... ... Dielectric, piezoelectric, and ferroelectric materials, see 77.84.-s
... ... ... Colloids, gels, and emulsions, see 82.70.Dd, Gg, Kj
... ... ... Biomaterials, see 87.85.J-
... ... ... Molecular sieves, zeolites, and other complex materials, see 82.75.-z
 
81.05.Bx Metals, semimetals, and alloys
 
81.05.Cy Elemental semiconductors (for semiconductors in electrochemistry, see 82.45.Vp)
 
81.05.Dz II-VI semiconductors
 
81.05.Ea III-V semiconductors
 
81.05.Fb Organic semiconductors
 
81.05.Gc Amorphous semiconductors
 
81.05.Hd Other semiconductors
 
81.05.Je Ceramics and refractories (including borides, carbides, hydrides, nitrides, oxides, and silicides) (for ceramics in electrochemistry, see 82.45.Yz)
 
81.05.Kf Glasses (including metallic glasses)
 
81.05.Lg Polymers and plastics; rubber; synthetic and natural fibers; organometallic and organic materials (for polymers and organic materials in electrochemistry, see 82.45.Wx)
 
81.05.Mh Cermets, ceramic and refractory composites
 
81.05.Ni Dispersion-, fiber-, and platelet-reinforced metal-based composites
 
81.05.Pj Glass-based composites, vitroceramics
 
81.05.Qk Reinforced polymers and polymer-based composites
 
81.05.Rm Porous materials; granular materials (for granular superconductors, see 74.81.Bd)
 
81.05.U- Carbon/carbon-based materials (for carbon-based superconductors, see 74.70.Wz)
 
81.05.ub Fullerenes and related materials
 
81.05.ue Graphene (for structure of graphene, see 61.48.Gh; for phonons in graphene, see 63.22.Rc; for thermal properties, see 65.80.Ck; for graphene films, see 68.65.Pq; for electronic transport, see 72.80.Vp; for electronic structure, see 73.22.Pr; for optical properties, see 78.67.Wj)
 
81.05.uf Graphite
 
81.05.ug Diamond
 
81.05.uj Diamond/nanocarbon composites
 
81.05.Xj Metamaterials for chiral, bianisotropic and other complex media (see also 42.70.-a Optical materials; see also 78.67.Pt, Multilayers; superlattices; photonic structures; metamaterials)
 
81.05.Zx New materials: theory, design, and fabrication
 
81.07.-b Nanoscale materials and structures: fabrication and characterization (for structure of nanoscale materials, see 61.46.-w; for nanostructured materials in electrochemistry, see 82.45.Yz; see also 62.23.-c Structural classes of nanoscale systems in mechanical properties of condensed matter)
 
81.07.Bc Nanocrystalline materials
 
81.07.De Nanotubes
 
81.07.Gf Nanowires
 
81.07.Lk Nanocontacts
 
81.07.Nb Molecular nanostructures
 
81.07.Oj Nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS)
 
81.07.Pr Organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures
 
81.07.St Quantum wells
 
81.07.Ta Quantum dots
 
81.07.Vb Quantum wires
 
81.07.Wx Nanopowders
 
81.10.-h Methods of crystal growth; physics and chemistry of crystal growth, crystal morphology, and orientation (see also 61.50.Lt Crystal binding, cohesive energy)
 
81.10.Aj Theory and models of crystal growth; physics and chemistry of crystal growth, crystal morphology, and orientation (see also 61.50.Nw Crystal stoichiometry)
 
81.10.Bk Growth from vapor
 
81.10.Dn Growth from solutions
 
81.10.Fq Growth from melts; zone melting and refining
 
81.10.Jt Growth from solid phases (including multiphase diffusion and recrystallization)
 
81.10.Mx Growth in microgravity environments
 
81.10.Pq Growth in vacuum
 
81.10.St Growth in controlled gaseous atmospheres
 
81.15.-z Methods of deposition of films and coatings; film growth and epitaxy (for structure of thin films, see 68.55.-a; see also 85.40.Sz Deposition technology in microelectronics; for epitaxial dielectric films, see 77.55.Px)
 
81.15.Aa Theory and models of film growth
 
81.15.Cd Deposition by sputtering
 
81.15.Dj E-beam and hot filament evaporation deposition
 
81.15.Fg Pulsed laser ablation deposition
 
81.15.Gh Chemical vapor deposition (including plasma-enhanced CVD, MOCVD, ALD, etc.) (for chemistry of MOCVD, see 82.33.Ya in physical chemistry and chemical physics)
 
81.15.Hi Molecular, atomic, ion, and chemical beam epitaxy
 
81.15.Jj Ion and electron beam-assisted deposition; ion plating (see also 52.77.Dq Plasma-based ion implantation and deposition in physics of plasmas)
 
81.15.Kk Vapor phase epitaxy; growth from vapor phase
 
81.15.Lm Liquid phase epitaxy; deposition from liquid phases (melts, solutions, and surface layers on liquids)
 
81.15.Np Solid phase epitaxy; growth from solid phases
 
81.15.Pq Electrodeposition, electroplating
 
81.15.Rs Spray coating techniques
 
81.16.-c Methods of micro- and nanofabrication and processing (for femtosecond probing of semiconductor nanostructures, see 82.53.Mj in physical chemistry and chemical physics)
 
81.16.Be Chemical synthesis methods
 
81.16.Dn Self-assembly
 
81.16.Fg Supramolecular and biochemical assembly
 
81.16.Hc Catalytic methods
 
81.16.Mk Laser-assisted deposition
 
81.16.Nd Micro- and nanolithography
 
81.16.Pr Micro- and nano-oxidation (see also 82.37.Np Single molecule reaction kinetics)
 
81.16.Rf Micro- and nanoscale pattern formation
 
81.16.Ta Atom manipulation (see also 82.37.Gk STM and AFM manipulation of a single-molecule; for atom and molecule traps, see 37.10.Gh, and 37.10.Pq, respectively; 87.80.Nj Single-molecule techniques in biological physics; 82.37.Rs Single-molecule manipulation of proteins and other biological molecules in physical chemistry)
 
81.20.-n Methods of materials synthesis and materials processing (see also 61.72.U- Doping and impurity implantation; for crystal growth, see 81.10.-h; for film growth, deposition and epitaxy, see 81.15.-z)
... ... ... Crystal growth, see 81.10.-h
... ... ... Film deposition, film growth, and epitaxy, see 81.15.-z
 
81.20.Ev Powder processing: powder metallurgy, compaction, sintering, mechanical alloying, and granulation
 
81.20.Fw Sol-gel processing, precipitation (for reactions in sol-gels, see 82.33.Ln; for sol-gels as disperse system, see 82.70.Gg)
 
81.20.Hy Forming; molding, extrusion, etc. [see also, 83.50.Uv Material processing (extension, molding, etc.)]
 
81.20.Ka Chemical synthesis; combustion synthesis (for electrochemical synthesis, see 82.45.Aa)
... ... ... Chemical vapor deposition, see 81.15.Gh
 
81.20.Rg Aerosols in materials synthesis and processing
 
81.20.Vj Joining; welding
 
81.20.Wk Machining, milling
 
81.20.Ym Purification
 
81.30.-t Phase diagrams and microstructures developed by solidification and solid-solid phase transformations (see also 64.70.K- Solid-solid transitions)
 
81.30.Bx Phase diagrams of metals, alloys, and oxides
 
81.30.Dz Phase diagrams of other materials (for superconductivity phase diagrams, see 74.25.Dw; for magnetic phase boundaries, see 75.30.Kz)
 
81.30.Fb Solidification
 
81.30.Hd Constant-composition solid-solid phase transformations: polymorphic, massive, and order-disorder
 
81.30.Kf Martensitic transformations
 
81.30.Mh Solid-phase precipitation (for precipitation hardening, see 81.40.Cd)
 
81.40.-z Treatment of materials and its effects on microstructure, nanostructure, and properties
 
81.40.Cd Solid solution hardening, precipitation hardening, and dispersion hardening; aging (see also 64.75.Nx Phase separation and segregation in solid solutions)
 
81.40.Ef Cold working, work hardening; annealing, post-deformation annealing, quenching, tempering recovery, and crystallization
 
81.40.Gh Other heat and thermomechanical treatments
 
81.40.Jj Elasticity and anelasticity, stress-strain relations
 
81.40.Lm Deformation, plasticity, and creep (see also 83.50.-v Deformation and flow in rheology)
 
81.40.Np Fatigue, corrosion fatigue, embrittlement, cracking, fracture, and failure (see also 62.20.M- Structural failure of materials)
 
81.40.Pq Friction, lubrication, and wear
 
81.40.Rs Electrical and magnetic properties related to treatment conditions
 
81.40.Tv Optical and dielectric properties related to treatment conditions
 
81.40.Vw Pressure treatment (see also 62.50.-p High-pressure effects in solids and liquids; 61.50.Ks Crystallographic aspects of phase transformations; pressure effects; for pressure effects on superconducting transition temperature, see 74.62.Fj)
 
81.40.Wx Radiation treatment (particle and electromagnetic) (see also 61.80.-x Physical radiation effects, radiation damage)
... ... ... Etching, corrosion, oxidation, and other surface treatments, see 81.65.-b
 
81.65.-b Surface treatments (for surface preparation and lithography in microelectronics, see 85.40.-e)
 
81.65.Cf Surface cleaning, etching, patterning (see also 52.77.Bn Etching and cleaning in physics of plasmas)
 
81.65.Kn Corrosion protection (see also 82.45.Bb Corrosion and passivation in electrochemistry)
 
81.65.Lp Surface hardening: nitridation, carburization, carbonitridation
 
81.65.Mq Oxidation (see also 64.75.Lm Phase separation and segregation in oxidation)
 
81.65.Ps Polishing, grinding, surface finishing
 
81.65.Rv Passivation (see also 82.45.Bb Corrosion and passivation in electrochemistry)
 
81.65.Tx Gettering
 
81.70.-q Methods of materials testing and analysis (see also 82.80.-d Chemical analysis and related physical methods of analysis)
 
81.70.Bt Mechanical testing, impact tests, static and dynamic loads (see also 62.20.M- Structural failure of materials; 46.50.+a Fracture mechanics, fatigue, and cracks)
 
81.70.Cv Nondestructive testing: ultrasonic testing, photoacoustic testing
 
81.70.Ex Nondestructive testing: electromagnetic testing, eddy-current testing
 
81.70.Fy Nondestructive testing: optical methods
 
81.70.Ha Testing in microgravity environments
 
81.70.Jb Chemical composition analysis, chemical depth and dopant profiling
 
81.70.Pg Thermal analysis, differential thermal analysis (DTA), differential thermogravimetric analysis
 
81.70.Tx Computed tomography
 
81.90.+c Other topics in materials science (restricted to new topics in section 81)
 
82. Physical chemistry and chemical physics (for electronic structure calculations, see 31.15.-p, 71.15.-m, 87.10.-e, 74.20.Pq, and 36.20.Kd in atomic and molecular physics, bulk materials, biophysics, superconductivity, and macromolecules, respectively; for geochemistry, see 91.67.-y; for chemistry of the ocean, see 92.20.Cm; for chemistry of fresh water, see 92.40.Bc; for chemistry of the atmosphere, see 92.60.H- and 92.60.Ls; for chemical reactions in scattering of atoms and molecules, see 34.50.Lf)
 
82.20.-w Chemical kinetics and dynamics
 
82.20.Bc State selected dynamics and product distribution
 
82.20.Db Transition state theory and statistical theories of rate constants
 
82.20.Ej Quantum theory of reaction cross section
 
82.20.Fd Collision theories; trajectory models
 
82.20.Gk Electronically non-adiabatic reactions
 
82.20.Hf Product distribution (for state selected dynamics and product distribution, see 82.20.Bc)
 
82.20.Kh Potential energy surfaces for chemical reactions (for potential energy surfaces for collisions, see 34.20.-b in atomic and molecular collisions and interactions)
 
82.20.Ln Semiclassical theory of reactions and/or energy transfer
 
82.20.Nk Classical theories of reactions and/or energy transfer
 
82.20.Pm Rate constants, reaction cross sections, and activation energies
 
82.20.Rp State to state energy transfer (see also 31.70.Hq Time-dependent phenomena—in atomic and molecular physics)
 
82.20.Sb Correlation function theory of rate constants and its applications
 
82.20.Tr Kinetic isotope effects including muonium
 
82.20.Uv Stochastic theories of rate constants
 
82.20.Wt Computational modeling; simulation
 
82.20.Xr Quantum effects in rate constants (tunneling, resonances, etc.)
 
82.20.Yn Solvent effects on reactivity
 
82.30.-b Specific chemical reactions; reaction mechanisms (for enzyme kinetics, see 82.39.Fk, and 87.15.R-; for protein folding dynamics, see 87.15.hm, and 87.15.Cc)
 
82.30.Cf Atom and radical reactions; chain reactions; molecule-molecule reactions
 
82.30.Fi Ion-molecule, ion-ion, and charge-transfer reactions (see also 34.70.+e Charge transfer in atomic and molecular collisions)
... ... ... Charge transfer in enzymes, see 82.39.Jn and 87.15.R-
 
82.30.Gg Positronium chemistry (see also 36.10.Dr Positronium in atomic and molecular physics; 78.70.Bj Positron annihilation in interactions of particles and radiation with matter)
 
82.30.Hk Chemical exchanges (substitution, atom transfer, abstraction, disproportionation, and group exchange)
 
82.30.Lp Decomposition reactions (pyrolysis, dissociation, and fragmentation)
 
82.30.Nr Association, addition, insertion, cluster formation
 
82.30.Qt Isomerization and rearrangement
 
82.30.Rs Hydrogen bonding, hydrophilic effects
 
82.30.Vy Homogeneous catalysis in solution, polymers and zeolites (for heterogeneous catalysis in zeolites, see 82.75.Qt)
 
82.33.-z Reactions in various media
 
82.33.De Reactions in supercritical fluids (for optical properties of supercritical fluids, see 78.15.+e)
 
82.33.Fg Reactions in clusters (see also 36.40.Jn Reactivity of clusters in atomic and molecular physics)
 
82.33.Hk Reactions on clusters
 
82.33.Jx Reactions in zeolites
 
82.33.Ln Reactions in sol gels, aerogels, porous media
 
82.33.Nq Reactions in micells
 
82.33.Pt Solid state chemistry
... ... ... Reactions in complex biological systems, see 82.39.Rt and 87.15R-
 
82.33.Tb Atmospheric chemistry (see also 92.60.H- in geophysics)
 
82.33.Vx Reactions in flames, combustion, and explosions
 
82.33.Xj Plasma reactions (including flowing afterglow and electric discharges)
 
82.33.Ya Chemistry of MOCVD and other vapor deposition methods (for methods of vapor deposition of films and coatings, see 81.15.Gh, and 81.15. Kk in materials science)
 
82.35.-x Polymers: properties; reactions; polymerization (for polymers in electrochemistry, see 82.45.Wx)
 
82.35.Cd Conducting polymers
 
82.35.Ej Nonlinear optics with polymers (see also 42.65.-k in nonlinear optics)
 
82.35.Gh Polymers on surfaces; adhesion (see also 68.35.Np Adhesion in surfaces and interfaces)
 
82.35.Jk Copolymers, phase transitions, structure
 
82.35.Lr Physical properties of polymers
 
82.35.Np Nanoparticles in polymers (see also 81.07.-b Nanoscale materials and structures: fabrication and characterization)
 
82.35.Pq Biopolymers, biopolymerization (see also 87.15.rp Polymerization in biological and medical physics)
 
82.35.Rs Polyelectrolytes
 
82.37.-j Single molecule kinetics
 
82.37.Gk STM and AFM manipulations of a single molecule (for atom manipulation see 37.10.Gh, Pq in atomic and molecular physics; see also 81.16.Ta Atom manipulation in methods of nanofabrication and processing; 87.80.Nj Single-molecule techniques in biological physics)
 
82.37.Np Single molecule reaction kinetics, dissociation, etc.
 
82.37.Rs Single molecule manipulation of proteins and other biological molecules
 
82.37.Vb Single molecule photochemistry
 
82.39.-k Chemical kinetics in biological systems (see also 87.15.R- Reactions and kinetics in biological and medical physics, and 82.45.Tv Bioelectrochemistry)
 
82.39.Fk Enzyme kinetics (see also 87.14.ej Enzymes in biological physics)
 
82.39.Jn Charge (electron, proton) transfer in biological systems
 
82.39.Pj Nucleic acids, DNA and RNA bases (for DNA, see 87.14.gk; for RNA, see 87.14.gn)
 
82.39.Rt Reactions in complex biological systems (see also 87.18.-h Biological complexity)
 
82.39.Wj Ion exchange, dialysis, osmosis, electro-osmosis, membrane processes
 
82.40.-g Chemical kinetics and reactions: special regimes and techniques (for chemically reactive flows, see 47.70.Fw; see also 82.20.Uv Stochastic theories of rate constants)
... ... ... Chemically reactive flows, see 47.70.Fw
 
82.40.Bj Oscillations, chaos, and bifurcations
 
82.40.Ck Pattern formation in reactions with diffusion, flow and heat transfer (see also 47.54.-r Pattern selection; pattern formation and 47.32.C- Vortex dynamics in fluid dynamics)
 
82.40.Fp Shock wave initiated reactions, high-pressure chemistry (see also 47.40.Nm Shock wave interactions and shock effects in fluid dynamics, and 62.50.Ef Shock wave effects in solids and liquids)
 
82.40.Np Temporal and spatial patterns in surface reactions
 
82.40.Qt Complex chemical systems (see also 82.39.Rt Reactions in complex biological systems and 87.18.-h Biological complexity)
 
82.45.-h Electrochemistry and electrophoresis
 
82.45.Aa Electrochemical synthesis (see also 81.16.Be Chemical synthesis methods in nanofabrication and 81.20.Ka Chemical synthesis; combustion synthesis in materials science)
 
82.45.Bb Corrosion and passivation (see also 81.65.Kn Corrosion protection and 81.65.Rv Passivation in surface treatments)
 
82.45.Cc Anodic films
 
82.45.Fk Electrodes
 
82.45.Gj Electrolytes (for polyelectrolytes, see 82.35.Rs and 82.45.Wx; see also 66.30.H- Self-diffusion and ionic conduction in nonmetals)
 
82.45.Hk Electrolysis
 
82.45.Jn Surface structure, reactivity and catalysis (see also 82.65.+r Surface and interface chemistry; heterogeneous catalysis at surfaces)
 
82.45.Mp Thin layers, films, monolayers, membranes (for anodic films, see 82.45.Cc; for surface double layers, see 73.30.+y in electronic structure of surfaces)
 
82.45.Qr Electrodeposition and electrodissolution (see also 81.15.Pq Electrodeposition, electroplating in materials science)
 
82.45.Rr Electroanalytical chemistry (see also 82.80.Fk Electrochemical methods in chemical analysis and related physical methods of analysis)
 
82.45.Tv Bioelectrochemistry (see also 82.39.-k Chemical kinetics in biological systems; 87.15.Tt Electrophoresis in biological physics)
 
82.45.Un Dielectric materials in electrochemistry (see also 77.84.-s Dielectric, piezoelectric, ferroelectric, and antiferroelectric materials)
 
82.45.Vp Semiconductor materials in electrochemistry (see also 81.05.Cy Elemental semiconductors; 81.05.Dz II-VI semiconductors; 81.05.Ea III-V semiconductors; 81.05.Fb Organic semiconductors; 81.05.Gc Amorphous semiconductors in specific materials)
 
82.45.Wx Polymers and organic materials in electrochemistry (see also 82.35.-x Polymers: properties; reactions; polymerization)
 
82.45.Xy Ceramics in electrochemistry (see also 81.05.Je Ceramics and refractories, and 81.05.Mh Cermets, ceramic and refractory composites in specific materials)
 
82.45.Yz Nanostructured materials in electrochemistry (for nanofabrication, see 81.16.-c in materials science)
 
82.47.-a Applied electrochemistry (see also 88.30.G- Fuel cell systems, and 88.30.P- Types of fuel cells in renewable energy resources and applications)
 
82.47.Aa Lithium-ion batteries
 
82.47.Cb Lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride and other batteries (for lithium-ion batteries, see 82.47.Aa)
 
82.47.Ed Solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC)
 
82.47.Gh Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells
 
82.47.Jk Photoelectrochemical cells, photoelectrochromic and other hybrid electrochemical energy storage devices (see also 84.60.Jt Photoelectric conversion)
 
82.47.Lh Molten-carbonate fuel cells (MCFC)
 
82.47.Nj Polymer-electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC)
 
82.47.Pm Phosphoric-acid fuel cells (PAFC); other fuel cells
 
82.47.Rs Electrochemical sensors
 
82.47.Tp Electrochemical displays
 
82.47.Uv Electrochemical capacitors; supercapacitors (see also 88.80.fh Supercapacitors in renewable energy resources and applications; 84.60.Ve Energy storage systems, including capacitor banks in direct energy conversion and storage)
 
82.47.Wx Electrochemical engineering
 
82.50.-m Photochemistry (for single molecule photochemistry, see 82.37.Vb)
 
82.50.Bc Processes caused by infrared radiation
 
82.50.Hp Processes caused by visible and UV light
 
82.50.Kx Processes caused by X-rays or γ-rays
 
82.50.Nd Control of photochemical reactions
 
82.50.Pt Multiphoton processes
 
82.53.-k Femtochemistry [see also 78.47.J-; Ultrafast spectroscopy (<1 psec) in condensed matter; 42.65.Re Ultrafast processes; optical generation and pulse compression in nonlinear optics]
 
82.53.Eb Pump probe studies of photodissociation
 
82.53.Hn Pump probe experiments with bound states
 
82.53.Kp Coherent spectroscopy of atoms and molecules
 
82.53.Mj Femtosecond probing of semiconductor nanostructures (see also 81.16.-c Methods of micro- and nanofabrication and processing)
 
82.53.Ps Femtosecond probing of biological molecules
 
82.53.St Femtochemistry of adsorbed molecules (for adsorbate structure, see 68.43.Bc, Fg in chemisorption/physisorption: adsorbates on surfaces)
 
82.53.Uv Femtosecond probes of molecules in liquids
 
82.53.Xa Femtosecond probes of molecules in solids and of molecular solids
 
82.56.-b Nuclear magnetic resonance (see also 33.25.+k Nuclear resonance and relaxation in atomic and molecular physics; 76.60.-k Nuclear magnetic resonance and relaxation; 76.70.-r Magnetic double resonances and cross effects in condensed matter)
 
82.56.Dj High resolution NMR
 
82.56.Fk Multidimensional NMR
 
82.56.Hg Multinuclear NMR
 
82.56.Jn Pulse sequences in NMR
 
82.56.Lz Diffusion
 
82.56.Na Relaxation
 
82.56.Pp NMR of biomolecules
 
82.56.Ub Structure determination with NMR
 
82.60.-s Chemical thermodynamics (see also 05.70.Ln Nonequilibrium and irreversible thermodynamics)
 
82.60.Cx Enthalpies of combustion, reaction, and formation
 
82.60.Fa Heat capacities and heats of phase transitions
 
82.60.Hc Chemical equilibria and equilibrium constants
 
82.60.Lf Thermodynamics of solutions
 
82.60.Nh Thermodynamics of nucleation (see also 64.60.Q- Nucleation—in equations of state, phase equilibria and phase transitions)
 
82.60.Qr Thermodynamics of nanoparticles
 
82.65.+r Surface and interface chemistry; heterogeneous catalysis at surfaces (for temporal and spatial patterns in surface reactions, see 82.40.Np; see also 82.45.Jn Surface structure, reactivity and catalysis in electrochemistry; see also 68.43.-h Chemisorption/physisorption: adsorbates on surfaces)
 
82.70.-y Disperse systems; complex fluids (see also 82.33.-z reactions in various media; for quantum optical phenomena in dispersive media, see 42.50.Nn)
 
82.70.Dd Colloids
 
82.70.Gg Gels and sols
 
82.70.Kj Emulsions and suspensions
 
82.70.Rr Aerosols and foams
 
82.70.Uv Surfactants, micellar solutions, vesicles, lamellae, amphiphilic systems, (hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions) (see also 82.30.Rs Hydrogen bonding, hydrophilic effects in specific chemical reactions)
 
82.75.-z Molecular sieves, zeolites, clathrates, and other complex solids
 
82.75.Fq Synthesis, structure determination, structure modeling
 
82.75.Jn Measurements and modeling of molecule migration in zeolites
 
82.75.Mj Measurements and simulation of properties (optical, structural) of molecules in zeolites
 
82.75.Qt Mechanism and kinetics of catalysis in zeolites (measurements or simulations)
 
82.75.Vx Clusters in zeolites
 
82.80.-d Chemical analysis and related physical methods of analysis (for related instrumentation, see section 07; for spectroscopic techniques in biological physics, see 87.64.-t)
 
82.80.Bg Chromatography
 
82.80.Dx Analytical methods involving electronic spectroscopy
 
82.80.Ej X-ray, Mössbauer, and other γ-ray spectroscopic analysis methods
 
82.80.Fk Electrochemical methods (see also 82.45.Rr Electroanalytical chemistry; for electrochemical sensors, see 82.47.Rs)
 
82.80.Gk Analytical methods involving vibrational spectroscopy
 
82.80.Ha Analytical methods involving rotational spectroscopy
 
82.80.Jp Activation analysis and other radiochemical methods
 
82.80.Kq Energy-conversion spectro-analytical methods (e.g., photoacoustic, photothermal, and optogalvanic spectroscopic methods)
 
82.80.Ms Mass spectrometry (including SIMS, multiphoton ionization and resonance ionization mass spectrometry, MALDI)
 
82.80.Nj Fourier transform mass spectrometry
 
82.80.Pv Electron spectroscopy (X-ray photoelectron (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), etc.)
 
82.80.Qx Ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry
 
82.80.Rt Time of flight mass spectrometry
 
82.80.Yc Rutherford backscattering (RBS), and other methods of chemical analysis
 
82.90.+j Other topics in physical chemistry and chemical physics (restricted to new topics in section 82)
 
83. Rheology (see also section 47 Fluid dynamics; for rheology of the Earth, see 91.32.-m; see also 87.19.rh Fluid transport and rheology in biological physics)
 
83.10.-y Fundamentals and theoretical
 
83.10.Bb Kinematics of deformation and flow (see also 47.50.-d Non-Newtonian fluid flows)
 
83.10.Ff Continuum mechanics (see also section 46 Continuum mechanics of solids)
 
83.10.Gr Constitutive relations
 
83.10.Kn Reptation and tube theories
 
83.10.Mj Molecular dynamics, Brownian dynamics
 
83.10.Pp Particle dynamics
 
83.10.Rs Computer simulation of molecular and particle dynamics
 
83.10.Tv Structural and phase changes
 
83.50.-v Deformation and flow
 
83.50.Ax Steady shear flows, viscometric flow
 
83.50.Ha Flow in channels (see also 47.60.Dx Flows in ducts and channels in fluid dynamics)
 
83.50.Jf Extensional flow and combined shear and extension
 
83.50.Lh Slip boundary effects (interfacial and free surface flows) (see also 47.45.Gx Slip flows and accommodation in fluid dynamics)
 
83.50.Rp Wall slip and apparent slip
 
83.50.Uv Material processing (extension, molding, etc.)
 
83.50.Xa Mixing and blending
 
83.60.-a Material behavior
 
83.60.Bc Linear viscoelasticity
 
83.60.Df Nonlinear viscoelasticity
 
83.60.Fg Shear rate dependent viscosity
 
83.60.Hc Normal stress differences and their effects (e.g. rod climbing)
 
83.60.Jk Extrudate swell
 
83.60.La Viscoplasticity; yield stress
 
83.60.Np Effects of electric and magnetic fields
 
83.60.Pq Time-dependent structure (thixotropy, rheopexy)
 
83.60.Rs Shear rate-dependent structure (shear thinning and shear thickening)
 
83.60.St Non-isothermal rheology
 
83.60.Uv Wave propagation, fracture, and crack healing
 
83.60.Wc Flow instabilities
 
83.60.Yz Drag reduction
 
83.80.-k Material type (see also 82.70.-y Disperse systems; complex fluids and 82.35.-x Polymers: properties; reactions; polymerization in physical chemistry and chemical physics)
 
83.80.Ab Solids: e.g., composites, glasses, semicrystalline polymers
 
83.80.Fg Granular solids
 
83.80.Gv Electro- and magnetorheological fluids
 
83.80.Hj Suspensions, dispersions, pastes, slurries, colloids
 
83.80.Iz Emulsions and foams
 
83.80.Jx Reacting systems: thermosetting polymers, chemorheology, rheokinetics
 
83.80.Kn Physical gels and microgels
 
83.80.Lz Physiological materials (e.g. blood, collagen, etc.)
 
83.80.Mc Other natural materials (e.g. wood and other vegetable materials)
 
83.80.Nb Geological materials: Earth, magma, ice, rocks, etc.
 
83.80.Qr Surfactant and micellar systems, associated polymers
 
83.80.Rs Polymer solutions
 
83.80.Sg Polymer melts
 
83.80.Tc Polymer blends
 
83.80.Uv Block copolymers
 
83.80.Va Elastomeric polymers
 
83.80.Wx Filled elastomers
 
83.80.Xz Liquid crystals: nematic, cholesteric, smectic, discotic, etc.
 
83.80.Ya Processed food
 
83.85.-c Techniques and apparatus
 
83.85.Cg Rheological measurements—rheometry
 
83.85.Ei Optical methods; rheo-optics
 
83.85.Fg NMR/magnetic resonance imaging (see also 76.60.Pc NMR imaging in condensed matter)
 
83.85.Hf X-ray and neutron scattering
 
83.85.Jn Viscosity measurements
 
83.85.Lq Normal stress difference measurements
 
83.85.Ns Data analysis (interconversion of data computation of relaxation and retardation spectra; time-temperature superposition, etc.) (see also 47.11.-j Computational methods in fluid dynamics)
 
83.85.Rx Extensional flow measurement
 
83.85.St Stress relaxation
 
83.85.Tz Creep and/or creep recoil
 
83.85.Vb Small amplitude oscillatory shear (dynamic mechanical analysis)
 
83.90.+s Other topics in rheology (restricted to new topics in section 83)
 
84. Electronics; radiowave and microwave technology; direct energy conversion and storage
 
84.30.-r Electronic circuits (for integrated circuits, see 85.40.-e, for microwave circuits, see 84.40.Dc)
 
84.30.Bv Circuit theory
 
84.30.Jc Power electronics; power supply circuits (see also 84.70.+p High-current and high-voltage technology; for superconducting high-power technology, see 84.71.-b)
 
84.30.Le Amplifiers
 
84.30.Ng Oscillators, pulse generators, and function generators
 
84.30.Qi Modulators and demodulators; discriminators, comparators, mixers, limiters, and compressors
 
84.30.Sk Pulse and digital circuits
 
84.30.Vn Filters
 
84.32.-y Passive circuit components (see also 07.50.-e Electrical and electronic instruments, and components)
 
84.32.Dd Connectors, relays, and switches
 
84.32.Ff Conductors, resistors (including thermistors, varistors, and photoresistors)
 
84.32.Hh Inductors and coils; wiring
 
84.32.Tt Capacitors (for electrochemical capacitors and supercapacitors, see 82.47.Uv)
 
84.32.Vv Fuses
 
84.35.+i Neural networks (for optical neural networks, see 42.79.Ta; see also 07.05.Mh Neural networks, fuzzy logic, artificial intelligence in computers in experimental physics; 87.18.Sn in biological complexity)
 
84.37.+q Measurements in electric variables (including voltage, current, resistance, capacitance, inductance, impedance, and admittance, etc.)
 
84.40.-x Radiowave and microwave (including millimeter wave) technology (for microwave, submillimeter wave, and radiowave receivers and detectors, see 07.57.Kp; for microwave and radiowave spectrometers, see 07.57.Pt; for radiowave propagation, see 41.20.Jb)
 
84.40.Az Waveguides, transmission lines, striplines
 
84.40.Ba Antennas: theory, components and accessories (for plasma interactions with antennas, see 52.40.Fd in plasma physics)
 
84.40.Dc Microwave circuits
 
84.40.Fe Microwave tubes (e.g., klystrons, magnetrons, traveling-wave, backward-wave tubes, etc.)
 
84.40.Ik Masers; gyrotrons (cyclotron-resonance masers)
 
84.40.Lj Microwave integrated electronics
 
84.40.Ua Telecommunications: signal transmission and processing; communication satellites (for optical communications, see 42.79.Sz in optics)
 
84.40.Xb Telemetry: remote control, remote sensing; radar
 
84.47.+w Vacuum tubes (see also 85.45.-w Vacuum microelectronics)
... ... ... Phototubes, see 85.60.Ha
... ... ... Microwave tubes, see 84.40.Fe
 
84.50.+d Electric motors
 
84.60.-h Direct energy conversion and storage (see also section 88.00.00 Renewable energy resources and applications; for electrochemical conversion, see 82.47.-a; for ocean energy extraction, see 92.05.Jn)
 
84.60.Bk Performance characteristics of energy conversion systems; figure of merit
 
84.60.Jt Photoelectric conversion (for solar cells, see 88.40.H- and 88.40.J- in renewable energy resources; for solar collectors and concentrators, see 42.79.Ek in optics and 88.40.F- in renewable energy resources)
 
84.60.Lw Magnetohydrodynamic conversion (for MHD generators, see 52.75.Fk—in plasma physics)
 
84.60.Ny Thermionic conversion (for thermionic generators, see 52.75.Fk—in plasma physics)
 
84.60.Rb Thermoelectric, electrogasdynamic and other direct energy conversion
 
84.60.Ve Energy storage systems, including capacitor banks (see also 82.47.Uv Electrochemical capacitors; supercapacitors, and 88.80.F- Energy storage technologies)
 
84.70.+p High-current and high-voltage technology: power systems; power transmission lines and cables (for superconducting cables, see 84.71.Fk)
 
84.71.-b Superconducting high-power technology (see also 84.30.Jc Power electronics; power supply circuits)
 
84.71.Ba Superconducting magnets; magnetic levitation devices
 
84.71.Fk Superconducting cables
 
84.71.Mn Superconducting wires, fibers, and tapes
 
84.90.+a Other topics in electronics, radiowave and microwave technology, and direct energy conversion and storage (restricted to new topics in section 84)
 
85. Electronic and magnetic devices; microelectronics (for vacuum tubes, see 84.47.+w; for microwave tubes, see 84.40.Fe, for conductors, and resistors, see 84.32.Ff; for wiring, inductors and coils, see 84.32.Hh)
 
85.25.-j Superconducting devices
 
85.25.Am Superconducting device characterization, design, and modeling
 
85.25.Cp Josephson devices
 
85.25.Dq Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs)
 
85.25.Hv Superconducting logic elements and memory devices; microelectronic circuits
 
85.25.Oj Superconducting optical, X-ray, and γ-ray detectors (SIS, NIS, transition edge)
 
85.25.Pb Superconducting infrared, submillimeter and millimeter wave detectors (see also 84.71.-b Superconducting high-power technology)
 
85.25.Qc Superconducting surface acoustic wave devices and other superconducting devices
 
85.30.-z Semiconductor devices (for photodiodes, phototransistors, and photoresistors, see 85.60.Dw; for laser diodes, see 42.55.Px; for semiconductor-based solar cells, see 88.40.-j; for applications of dielectric films in silicon electronics, see 77.55.df)
 
85.30.De Semiconductor-device characterization, design, and modeling
 
85.30.Fg Bulk semiconductor and conductivity oscillation devices (including Hall effect devices, space-charge-limited devices, and Gunn effect devices)
 
85.30.Hi Surface barrier, boundary, and point contact devices
 
85.30.Kk Junction diodes
 
85.30.Mn Junction breakdown and tunneling devices (including resonance tunneling devices)
 
85.30.Pq Bipolar transistors
 
85.30.Rs Thyristors
 
85.30.Tv Field effect devices
 
85.35.-p Nanoelectronic devices
 
85.35.Be Quantum well devices (quantum dots, quantum wires, etc.)
 
85.35.Ds Quantum interference devices
 
85.35.Gv Single electron devices
 
85.35.Kt Nanotube devices
 
85.40.-e Microelectronics: LSI, VLSI, ULSI; integrated circuit fabrication technology (see also 85.45.-w Vacuum microelectronics; 84.40.Lj Microwave integrated electronics; 42.82.-m Integrated optics; 85.25.Hv Superconducting logic elements and memory devices; microelectronic circuits)
 
85.40.Bh Computer-aided design of microcircuits; layout and modeling
 
85.40.Hp Lithography, masks and pattern transfer
... ... ... Micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) and devices, see 85.85.+j
 
85.40.Ls Metallization, contacts, interconnects; device isolation
 
85.40.Qx Microcircuit quality, noise, performance, and failure analysis
 
85.40.Ry Impurity doping, diffusion and ion implantation technology
 
85.40.Sz Deposition technology (for plasma applications in deposition technology, see 52.77.Dq)
 
85.40.Xx Hybrid microelectronics; thick films
 
85.45.-w Vacuum microelectronics
 
85.45.Bz Vacuum microelectronic device characterization, design, and modeling
 
85.45.Db Field emitters and arrays, cold electron emitters
 
85.45.Fd Field emission displays (FEDs)
 
85.50.-n Dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric devices
 
85.50.Gk Non-volatile ferroelectric memories
 
85.60.-q Optoelectronic devices (see also 42.79.-e Optical elements, devices and systems)
 
85.60.Bt Optoelectronic device characterization, design, and modeling
 
85.60.Dw Photodiodes; phototransistors; photoresistors
 
85.60.Gz Photodetectors (including infrared and CCD detectors) (for superconducting infrared detectors, see 85.25.Pb; for superconducting optical, x-ray and γ-ray detectors, see 85.25.Oj; see also 07.57.Kp in instruments)
 
85.60.Ha Photomultipliers; phototubes and photocathodes
 
85.60.Jb Light-emitting devices
 
85.60.Pg Display systems (for field emission display, see 85.45.Fd, for optical display devices, see 42.79.Kr; for electrochemical displays, see 82.47.Tp; see also 07.07.Hj Display and recording equipment, oscilloscopes, TV cameras, etc.)
 
85.65.+h Molecular electronic devices
 
85.70.-w Magnetic devices (for magnets, see 07.55.Db; for molecular magnets, see 75.50.Xx; for beam bending magnets, see 41.85.Lc; see also 84.71.Ba Superconducting magnets and magnetic levitation devices; 75.50.Ss Magnetic recording materials)
 
85.70.Ay Magnetic device characterization, design, and modeling
 
85.70.Ec Magnetostrictive, magnetoacoustic, and magnetostatic devices (for magnetostrictive transducers, see 43.38.Ct—in Acoustics Appendix)
 
85.70.Ge Ferrite and garnet devices
 
85.70.Kh Magnetic thin film devices: magnetic heads (magnetoresistive, inductive, etc.); domain-motion devices, etc.
 
85.70.Li Other magnetic recording and storage devices (including tapes, disks, and drums)
 
85.70.Rp Magnetic levitation, propulsion and control devices
 
85.70.Sq Magnetooptical devices
 
85.75.-d Magnetoelectronics; spintronics: devices exploiting spin polarized transport or integrated magnetic fields
 
85.75.Bb Magnetic memory using giant magnetoresistance
 
85.75.Dd Magnetic memory using magnetic tunnel junctions
 
85.75.Ff Reprogrammable magnetic logic
 
85.75.Hh Spin polarized field effect transistors
 
85.75.Mm Spin polarized resonant tunnel junctions
 
85.75.Nn Hybrid Hall devices
 
85.75.Ss Magnetic field sensors using spin polarized transport
 
85.80.-b Thermoelectromagnetic and other devices (for acoustoelectric devices, see 43.38.-p in Acoustics Appendix; for electrochemical devices, see 82.47.-a)
 
85.80.Fi Thermoelectric devices
 
85.80.Jm Magnetoelectric devices
 
85.80.Lp Magnetothermal devices
 
85.85.+j Micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) and devices
 
85.90.+h Other topics in electronic and magnetic devices and microelectronics (restricted to new topics in section 85)
 
87. Biological and medical physics
 
87.10.-e General theory and mathematical aspects
 
87.10.Ca Analytical theories
 
87.10.Ed Ordinary differential equations (ODE), partial differential equations (PDE), integrodifferential models
 
87.10.Hk Lattice models
 
87.10.Kn Finite element calculations
 
87.10.Mn Stochastic modeling
 
87.10.Pq Elasticity theory
 
87.10.Rt Monte Carlo simulations
 
87.10.Tf Molecular dynamics simulation
 
87.10.Vg Biological information
 
87.14.-g Biomolecules: types
 
87.14.Cc Lipids
 
87.14.Df Carbohydrates
 
87.14.E- Proteins
 
87.14.ef Peptides
 
87.14.ej Enzymes
 
87.14.em Fibrils (amyloids, collagen, etc.)
 
87.14.ep Membrane proteins
 
87.14.et Generic models (lattice, HP, etc.)
 
87.14.G- Nucleic acids
 
87.14.gf Nucleotides
 
87.14.gk DNA
 
87.14.gn RNA
 
87.14.Lk Hormones
 
87.14.Pq Vitamins
 
87.15.-v Biomolecules: structure and physical properties (for NMR of biomolecules, see 82.56.Pp)
 
87.15.A- Theory, modeling, and computer simulation
 
87.15.ad Analytical theories
 
87.15.ag Quantum calculations
 
87.15.ak Monte Carlo simulations
 
87.15.ap Molecular dynamics simulation
 
87.15.B- Structure of biomolecules
 
87.15.bd Secondary structure
 
87.15.bg Tertiary structure
 
87.15.bk Structure of aggregates
 
87.15.Cc Folding: thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, models, and pathways (see also 87.15.hm Folding dynamics)
 
87.15.Fh Bonding; mechanisms of bond breakage
 
87.15.H- Dynamics of biomolecules
 
87.15.hg Dynamics of intermolecular interactions
 
87.15.hj Transport dynamics
 
87.15.hm Folding dynamics
 
87.15.hp Conformational changes
 
87.15.ht Ultrafast dynamics; charge transfer
 
87.15.K- Molecular interactions; membrane-protein interactions
 
87.15.kj Protein-polynucleotide interactions
 
87.15.km Protein-protein interactions
 
87.15.kp Protein-ligand interactions
 
87.15.kr Protein-solvent interactions
 
87.15.kt Protein-membrane interactions
 
87.15.La Mechanical properties
 
87.15.M- Spectra of biomolecules
 
87.15.mk Photodissociation
 
87.15.mn Photoionization
 
87.15.mq Luminescence
 
87.15.N- Properties of solutions of macromolecules
 
87.15.np Dissolution
 
87.15.nr Aggregation
 
87.15.nt Crystallization
 
87.15.Pc Electronic and electrical properties
 
87.15.Qt Sequence analysis
 
87.15.R- Reactions and kinetics (see also 82.39.-k Chemical kinetics in biological systems in physical chemistry)
 
87.15.rp Polymerization (see also 82.35.Pq Biopolymers, biopolymerization in physical chemistry)
 
87.15.rs Dissociation
 
87.15.Tt Electrophoresis (see also 82.45.-h Electrochemistry and electrophoresis)
 
87.15.Vv Diffusion
 
87.15.Ya Fluctuations
 
87.15.Zg Phase transitions
 
87.16.-b Subcellular structure and processes
 
87.16.A- Theory, modeling, and simulations
 
87.16.ad Analytical theories
 
87.16.af Monte Carlo calculations
 
87.16.aj Lattice models
 
87.16.D- Membranes, bilayers, and vesicles
 
87.16.dj Dynamics and fluctuations
 
87.16.dm Mechanical properties and rheology
 
87.16.dp Transport, including channels, pores, and lateral diffusion
 
87.16.dr Assembly and interactions
 
87.16.dt Structure, static correlations, domains, and rafts
 
87.16.Gj Cell walls
 
87.16.Ka Filaments, microtubules, their networks, and supramolecular assemblies
 
87.16.Ln Cytoskeleton
 
87.16.Mq Morphology of nerve cells
 
87.16.Nn Motor proteins (myosin, kinesin dynein)
 
87.16.Qp Pseudopods, lamellipods, cilia, and flagella
 
87.16.Sr Chromosomes, histones
 
87.16.Tb Mitochondria and other organelles
 
87.16.Uv Active transport processes
 
87.16.Vy Ion channels
 
87.16.Wd Intracellular trafficking
 
87.16.Xa Signal transduction and intracellular signaling
 
87.16.Yc Regulatory genetic and chemical networks
 
87.16.Zg Nuclear morphology
 
87.17.-d Cell processes
 
87.17.Aa Modeling, computer simulation of cell processes
 
87.17.Ee Growth and division
 
87.17.Jj Cell locomotion, chemotaxis
 
87.17.Pq Morphogenesis
 
87.17.Rt Cell adhesion and cell mechanics
 
87.17.Uv Biotechnology of cell processes
 
87.18.-h Biological complexity (see also 82.39.Rt Reactions in complex biological systems in physical chemistry)
 
87.18.Cf Genetic switches and networks
 
87.18.Ed Cell aggregation
 
87.18.Fx Multicellular phenomena, biofilms
 
87.18.Gh Cell-cell communication; collective behavior of motile cells
 
87.18.Hf Spatiotemporal pattern formation in cellular populations
 
87.18.Mp Signal transduction networks
 
87.18.Nq Large-scale biological processes and integrative biophysics
 
87.18.Sn Neural networks and synaptic communication
 
87.18.Tt Noise in biological systems
 
87.18.Vf Systems biology
 
87.18.Wd Genomics
 
87.18.Xr Proteomics
 
87.18.Yt Circadian rhythms
 
87.19.-j Properties of higher organisms
 
87.19.Ff Muscles
 
87.19.Hh Cardiac dynamics
 
87.19.L- Neuroscience
 
87.19.lb Action potential propagation and axons
 
87.19.lc Noise in the nervous system
 
87.19.ld Electrodynamics in the nervous system
 
87.19.le EEG and MEG
 
87.19.lf MRI: anatomic, functional, spectral, diffusion
 
87.19.lg Synapses: chemical and electrical (gap junctions)
 
87.19.lh Optical imaging of neuronal activity
 
87.19.lj Neuronal network dynamics
 
87.19.lk Glia
 
87.19.ll Models of single neurons and networks
 
87.19.lm Synchronization in the nervous system
 
87.19.ln Oscillations and resonance
 
87.19.lo Information theory
 
87.19.lp Pattern formation: activity and anatomic
 
87.19.lq Neuronal wave propagation
 
87.19.lr Control theory and feedback
 
87.19.ls Encoding, decoding, and transformation
 
87.19.lt Sensory systems: visual, auditory, tactile, taste, and olfaction (for Neurophysiology of speech perception, see 43.71.Qr and 43.72.Qr Auditory synthesis and recognition in Acoustics Appendix; 42.66.-p Physiological optics)
 
87.19.lu Motor systems: Locomotion, flight, vocalization
 
87.19.lv Learning and memory
 
87.19.lw Plasticity
 
87.19.lx Development and growth
 
87.19.ly Energetics
 
87.19.Pp Biothermics and thermal processes in biology
 
87.19.R- Mechanical and electrical properties of tissues and organs
 
87.19.rd Elastic properties
 
87.19.rf Dielectric properties
 
87.19.rh Fluid transport and rheology
 
87.19.rj Contraction
 
87.19.rm Structure
 
87.19.rp Impulse propagation
 
87.19.rs Movement
 
87.19.ru Locomotion
 
87.19.U- Hemodynamics
 
87.19.ug Heart and lung dynamics
 
87.19.uj Peripheral vascular dynamics
 
87.19.um Blood-brain barrier
 
87.19.Wx Pneumodyamics, respiration
 
87.19.X- Diseases
 
87.19.xb Bacterial diseases
 
87.19.xd Viral diseases
 
87.19.xe Parasitic diseases
 
87.19.xg Fungal diseases
 
87.19.xh Prion diseases
 
87.19.xj Cancer
 
87.19.xk Genetic diseases
 
87.19.xm Epilepsy
 
87.19.xn Musculoskeletal diseases
 
87.19.xp Motor system disease (Parkinson's, etc.)
 
87.19.xq Stroke
 
87.19.xr Degenerative diseases (Alzheimer's, ALS, etc)
 
87.19.xt Developmental diseases
 
87.19.xu Gastrointestinal diseases
 
87.19.xv Endocrine diseases
 
87.19.xw Immune system diseases
 
87.23.-n Ecology and evolution
 
87.23.Cc Population dynamics and ecological pattern formation
 
87.23.Ge Dynamics of social systems
 
87.23.Kg Dynamics of evolution
 
87.50.-a Effects of electromagnetic and acoustic fields on biological systems
 
87.50.C- Static and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields effects
 
87.50.cf Biophysical mechanisms of interaction
 
87.50.ch Electrophoresis/dielectrophoresis and other mechanical effects (see also 87.15.Tt Electrophoresis)
 
87.50.cj Electroporation/membrane effects
 
87.50.cm Dosimetry/exposure assessment
 
87.50.ct Therapeutic applications
 
87.50.S- Radiofrequency/microwave fields effects
 
87.50.sg Biophysical mechanisms of interaction
 
87.50.sj Dosimetry/exposure assessment
 
87.50.st Therapeutic applications
 
87.50.U- Millimeter/terahertz fields effects
 
87.50.uj Biophysical mechanisms of interaction
 
87.50.up Dosimetry/exposure assessment
 
87.50.ux Therapeutic applications
 
87.50.W- Optical/infrared radiation effects
 
87.50.wf Biophysical mechanisms of interaction
 
87.50.wj Dosimetry/exposure assessment
 
87.50.wp Therapeutic applications
 
87.50.Y- Biological effects of acoustic and ultrasonic energy
 
87.50.yg Biophysical mechanisms of interaction
 
87.50.yk Dosimetry/exposure assessment
 
87.50.yt Therapeutic applications
 
87.53.-j Effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems
 
87.53.Ay Biophysical mechanisms of interaction
 
87.53.Bn Dosimetry/exposure assessment
 
87.53.Jw Therapeutic applications, including brachytherapy
 
87.53.Kn Conformal radiation treatment
 
87.53.Ly Stereotactic radiosurgery
 
87.55.-x Treatment strategy
 
87.55.D- Treatment planning
 
87.55.de Optimization
 
87.55.dh Tissue response
 
87.55.dk Dose-volume analysis
 
87.55.Gh Simulation
 
87.55.K- Monte Carlo methods
 
87.55.kd Algorithms
 
87.55.kh Applications
 
87.55.km Verification
 
87.55.N- Radiation monitoring, control, and safety
 
87.55.ne Therapeutic applications
 
87.55.Qr Quality assurance in radiotherapy
 
87.55.T- Record and verify systems and applications
 
87.55.tg Design
 
87.55.tm Applications
 
87.56.-v Radiation therapy equipment
 
87.56.B- Radiation sources
 
87.56.bd Accelerators
 
87.56.bg Radioactive sources
 
87.56.Da Ancillary equipment
 
87.56.Fc Quality assurance equipment
 
87.56.J- Collimation
 
87.56.jf Field size
 
87.56.jk Field shaping
 
87.56.N- Beam intensity modifications
 
87.56.ng Wedges and compensators
 
87.56.nk Collimators
 
87.57.-s Medical imaging
 
87.57.C- Image quality
 
87.57.cf Spatial resolution
 
87.57.cj Contrast
 
87.57.cm Noise
 
87.57.cp Artifacts and distortion
 
87.57.N- Image analysis
 
87.57.nf Reconstruction
 
87.57.nj Registration
 
87.57.nm Segmentation
 
87.57.np Smoothing
 
87.57.nt Edge enhancement
 
87.57.Q- Computed tomography
 
87.57.qh Single-slice
 
87.57.qp Multislice
 
87.57.R- Computer-aided diagnosis
 
87.57.rh Mammography
 
87.57.U- Nuclear medicine imaging
 
87.57.ue Conventional nuclear medicine imaging
 
87.57.uh Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
 
87.57.uk Positron emission tomography (PET)
 
87.57.un Radiopharmaceuticals
 
87.57.uq Dosimetry
 
87.57.Va Neutron imaging; neutron tomography
 
87.59.-e X-ray imaging
 
87.59.B- Radiography
 
87.59.bd Computed radiography
 
87.59.bf Digital radiography
 
87.59.C- Fluoroscopy
 
87.59.cf Digital fluoroscopy
 
87.59.Dj Angiography
 
87.59.E- Mammography
 
87.59.eg Film mammography
 
87.59.ej Digital mammography
 
87.61.-c Magnetic resonance imaging
 
87.61.Bj Theory and principles
 
87.61.Ff Instrumentation
 
87.61.Hk Pulse sequences
 
87.61.Jc Anatomic imaging
 
87.61.Np Flow imaging
 
87.61.Qr Functional imaging
 
87.61.Tg Clinical applications
 
87.63.-d Non-ionizing radiation equipment and techniques
 
87.63.D- Ultrasonography
 
87.63.dh Ultrasonographic imaging
 
87.63.dk Doppler
 
87.63.Hg Thermography
 
87.63.L- Visual imaging
 
87.63.lg Principles of visualization
 
87.63.lj Image perception
 
87.63.lm Image enhancement
 
87.63.lp Transillumination
 
87.63.lt Laser imaging
 
87.63.Pn Electrical impedance tomography (EIT)
 
87.63.St Bone densitometry
 
87.64.-t Spectroscopic and microscopic techniques in biophysics and medical physics
 
87.64.Aa Computer simulation
 
87.64.Bx Electron, neutron and x-ray diffraction and scattering
 
87.64.Cc Scattering of visible, uv, and infrared radiation
 
87.64.Dz Scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy
 
87.64.Ee Electron microscopy
 
87.64.K- Spectroscopy
 
87.64.kd X-ray and EXAFS
 
87.64.kh EPR
 
87.64.kj NMR
 
87.64.km Infrared
 
87.64.kp Raman
 
87.64.ks Electron and photoelectron
 
87.64.ku Magnetic circular dichroism
 
87.64.kv Fluorescence
 
87.64.kx Mössbauer
 
87.64.M- Optical microscopy
 
87.64.mc Bright field
 
87.64.mf Dark field
 
87.64.mh Phase contrast and DIC
 
87.64.mk Confocal
 
87.64.mn Multiphoton
 
87.64.mt Near-field scanning
 
87.80.-y Biophysical techniques (research methods)
 
87.80.Cc Optical trapping (see also 42.50.Wk Mechanical effects of light on material media, microstructure and particles in optics; 37.10.-x Atom, molecule, and ion cooling methods)
 
87.80.Dj Spectroscopies
 
87.80.Ek Mechanical and micromechanical techniques
 
87.80.Fe Micromanipulation of biological structures
 
87.80.Jg Patch clamping and other physiological measurements
 
87.80.Kc Electrochemical techniques
 
87.80.Lg Magnetic and paramagnetic resonance
 
87.80.Nj Single-molecule techniques (see also 82.37.Rs Single molecule manipulation of proteins and other biological molecules in physical chemistry)
 
87.80.Qk Biochemical separation processes
 
87.80.St Genomic techniques
 
87.80.Un Proteomic techniques
 
87.85.-d Biomedical engineering
 
87.85.D- Applied neuroscience
 
87.85.dd Brain-machine interfaces
 
87.85.dh Cells on a chip
 
87.85.dm Physical models of neurophysiological processes
 
87.85.dq Neural networks
 
87.85.E- Neural prosthetics
 
87.85.eg Electrode stimulation
 
87.85.ej Safe limits of charge injection
 
87.85.em Tissue damage
 
87.85.F- Smart prosthetics
 
87.85.ff Feedback
 
87.85.fh Feedforward
 
87.85.fk Biosensors
 
87.85.fp Bidirectional communication
 
87.85.G- Biomechanics
 
87.85.gf Fluid mechanics and rheology
 
87.85.gj Movement and locomotion
 
87.85.gp Mechanical systems
 
87.85.J- Biomaterials
 
87.85.jc Electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of biological matter
 
87.85.jf Bio-based materials
 
87.85.jj Biocompatibility
 
87.85.Lf Tissue engineering
 
87.85.M- Biotechnology (for biotechnology of cell processes, see 87.17.Uv)
 
87.85.md Genetic engineering
 
87.85.mg Genomics
 
87.85.mk Proteomics
 
87.85.Ng Biological signal processing
 
87.85.Ox Biomedical instrumentation and transducers, including micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)
 
87.85.Pq Biomedical imaging
 
87.85.Qr Nanotechnologies-design
 
87.85.Rs Nanotechnologies-applications
 
87.85.St Robotics
 
87.85.Tu Modeling biomedical systems
 
87.85.Uv Micromanipulators
 
87.85.Va Micromachining
 
87.85.Wc Neural engineering (for neural prosthetics, see 87.85.E-)
 
87.85.Xd Dynamical, regulatory, and integrative biology
 
87.90.+y Other topics in biological and medical physics (restricted to new topics in section 87)
 
88. Renewable energy resources and applications (for nuclear power see 89.30.Gg and 89.30.Jj)
 
88.05.-b Energy analysis
 
88.05.Bc Energy efficiency; definitions and standards
 
88.05.De Thermodynamic constraints on energy production (see also 05.70.-a Thermodynamics)
 
88.05.Ec Renewable energy targets
 
88.05.Gh Energy conservation; electricity demand reduction
 
88.05.Hj Energy content issues; life cycle analysis
 
88.05.Jk Policy issues; resource assessment
 
88.05.Lg Economic issues; sustainability; cost trends
 
88.05.Np Environmental aspects
 
88.05.Pq Emissions trading and CDM
 
88.05.Qr Energy use in agriculture (see also 91.62.Bf Agricultural systems in Geophysics Appendix)
 
88.05.Rt Energy use in appliances and electronic equipment
 
88.05.Sv Energy use in heating and cooling of residential and commercial buildings (for solar heating and cooling of residential and commercial buildings, see 88.40.me; for geothermal energy use in heating and cooling of buildings, see 88.10.cn)
 
88.05.Tg Energy use in lighting (for solar energy use in lighting, see 88.40.mx, and 88.40.my)
 
88.05.Vx Energy use in industry and manufacturing (see also 89.20.Bb Industrial and technological research and development)
 
88.05.Xj Energy use in transportation (see also 88.85.-r Advanced vehicles)
 
88.10.-g Geothermal energy (see also 91.35.Dc Heat flow; geothermy)
 
88.10.C- Ground heat
 
88.10.cd Geothermal heat pumps
 
88.10.cf Global geothermal flux
 
88.10.ch Continental geothermal energy
 
88.10.cj Oceanic geothermal energy
 
88.10.cn Heating and cooling of buildings; space heating (for solar heating and cooling of residential and commercial buildings, see 88.40.me)
 
88.10.Eb Hot dry rock (igneous systems)
 
88.10.F- Hydrothermal reservoirs (see also 92.05.Lf Hydrothermal systems in oceanography; 91.40.Ge Hydrothermal systems in volcanology)
 
88.10.fb Hot springs
 
88.10.fe Hot water from wells
 
88.10.fh Down hole pumps
 
88.10.G- Reservoir engineering (enhanced geothermal systems)
 
88.10.gc Simulation; prediction models
 
88.10.gf Imaging fluid flow
 
88.10.gk High-temperature logging tools and sensors
 
88.10.gn Fracture characterization of rocks
 
88.10.gp Site characterization; zonal isolation
 
88.10.H- Geothermal electricity production
 
88.10.hd Dry steam plants
 
88.10.hf Flash steam plants
 
88.10.hh Binary-cycle steam plants
 
88.10.J- Brines and their dissolved matter
 
88.10.jj Mineral extraction
 
88.10.jn Metals extraction
 
88.10.jp Combined minerals and metals extraction
 
88.20.-j Biomass energy
 
88.20.D- Biomass energy sources
 
88.20.dd Wood
 
88.20.df Food crops
 
88.20.dh Grassy and woody plants
 
88.20.dj Agriculture/forestry residues
 
88.20.dm Aquatic/marine sources
 
88.20.dp Cellolusic materials
 
88.20.dr Food wastes
 
88.20.dt Municipal and industrial wastes
 
88.20.dv Methane from landfills
 
88.20.F- Renewable alternative fuels from biomass energy (for fossil fuels, see 89.30.A-)
 
88.20.ff Ethanol (see also 88.85.mj ethanol in alternative fuels for advanced vehicles)
 
88.20.fg Methanol
 
88.20.fh Butanol
 
88.20.fj Mixed alcohols
 
88.20.fk Biodiesel (see also 88.85.mb Biodiesel in alternative fuels for advanced vehicles)
 
88.20.fn Hydrogen (see also 88.85.mh Hydrogen in alternative fuels for advanced vehicles)
 
88.20.fq Methane
 
88.20.fr Solid pelletized fuel
 
88.20.fs Syngas
 
88.20.ft Vegetable oils
 
88.20.fv Bioethers
 
88.20.fw Bioaviation fuel
 
88.20.G- Methane production
 
88.20.gc Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquids (hydrocarbons)
 
88.20.gf Decaying organic matter
 
88.20.gh Anaerobic digestion
 
88.20.H- Biomass processing routes
 
88.20.hh Biochemical route
 
88.20.hj Thermochemical route
 
88.20.J- Biomass conversion methods
 
88.20.jj Combustion
 
88.20.jm Hydrolysis and fermentation
 
88.20.jp Extraction and esterification
 
88.20.jr Alternate photosynthetic pathways
 
88.20.M- Biopower systems
 
88.20.mn Direct-firing systems
 
88.20.mp Cofiring systems
 
88.20.mr Gasification systems; syngas
 
88.20.mt Pyrolysis to liquids
 
88.20.mv Paper mills
 
88.20.R- Bioproducts from biomass
 
88.20.rb Plastics
 
88.20.rg Glues
 
88.20.rm Acids
 
88.20.rp Wood adhesives
 
88.20.rr Foam insulation
 
88.20.T- Markets for renewable alternative fuels (for alternative fuels for advanced vehicles, see 88.85.M-)
 
88.20.td Heat
 
88.20.tf Combined heat and power
 
88.20.th Transportation fuels
 
88.20.tk Chemicals
 
88.20.Y- Social issues
 
88.20.yq Food versus fuel debate
 
88.30.-k Hydrogen and fuel cell technology (for hydrogen as a renewable alternative fuel, see 88.20.fn; for hydrogen as an alternative fuel in advanced vehicles, see 88.85.mh)
 
88.30.E- Hydrogen production with renewable energy
 
88.30.ej Thermochemical hydrogen
 
88.30.em Electrolytic hydrogen
 
88.30.ep Electrochemical photolytic hydrogen
 
88.30.er Biological photolytic hydrogen
 
88.30.et Reforming biomass and wastes
 
88.30.ew Water-gas-shift (WGS) reaction
 
88.30.G- Fuel cell systems
 
88.30.gg Design and simulation
 
88.30.J- Fuel cell components
 
88.30.jn Fuel cell stack
 
88.30.jp Fuel processor
 
88.30.jr Current converter
 
88.30.jt Heat recovery system
 
88.30.M- Fuel cell component materials
 
88.30.mg Inorganic proton conductors
 
88.30.mj Composite materials
 
88.30.Nn Corrosion protection
 
88.30.P- Types of fuel cells (see also 82.47.-a Applied electrochemistry)
 
88.30.pd Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEM)
 
88.30.pf Direct methanol fuel cells
 
88.30.ph Alkaline fuel cells
 
88.30.pj Phosphoric acid fuel cells
 
88.30.pm Molten carbonate fuel cells
 
88.30.pn Solid oxide fuel cells
 
88.30.pp Regenerative fuel cells
 
88.30.R- Hydrogen storage
 
88.30.rd Inorganic metal hydrides
 
88.30.rf Organics
 
88.30.rh Carbon nanotubes
 
88.30.rj Hydrocarbons and alcohols liquid systems
 
88.40.-j Solar energy
 
88.40.F- Solar concentrators (see also 42.79.Ek Solar collectors and concentrators in optics)
 
88.40.fc Modeling and analysis
 
88.40.ff Performance testing
 
88.40.fh Advanced materials development
 
88.40.fj Parabolic-trough mirrors
 
88.40.fm Dish/engine systems
 
88.40.fp Power tower systems
 
88.40.fr Concentrating collectors
 
88.40.H- Solar cells (photovoltaics)
 
88.40.hj Efficiency and performance of solar cells
 
88.40.hm Cost of production of solar cells
 
88.40.J- Types of solar cells
 
88.40.jj Silicon solar cells
 
88.40.jm Thin film III-V and II-VI based solar cells
 
88.40.jn Thin film Cu-based I-III-VI2 solar cells
 
88.40.jp Multijunction solar cells
 
88.40.jr Organic photovoltaics
 
88.40.M- Residential and commercial buildings
 
88.40.me Solar heating and cooling systems
 
88.40.mg Active space/water heating
 
88.40.mj Passive space/water heating
 
88.40.mm Pool heating systems
 
88.40.mp Grid-tied solar electric systems
 
88.40.mr Building-integrated photovoltaics
 
88.40.mt Roof top shingles
 
88.40.mv Building facades
 
88.40.mx Day lighting/natural lighting of buildings
 
88.40.my Outdoor solar lights
 
88.50.-k Wind energy
 
88.50.G- Wind turbines
 
88.50.gg Research and development
 
88.50.gj Modeling, design
 
88.50.gm Components
 
88.50.gp Testing
 
88.50.J- Wind farms
 
88.50.jj Small-scale wind farms
 
88.50.jn Large-scale wind farms
 
88.50.jp Off-shore wind farms
 
88.50.Mp Electricity generation, grid integration from wind (see also 84.70.+p High-current and high-voltage technology: power systems; power transmission lines and cables; see also 88.80.-q Energy delivery and storage)
 
88.50.Xy Social issues regarding wind energy
 
88.60.-m Hydroelectric power (see also 84.70.+p High-current and high-voltage technology: power systems; power transmission lines and cables)
 
88.60.J- Conventional hydropower
 
88.60.jb Impoundment facilities, dams
 
88.60.je Diversion facilities
 
88.60.jg Pumped storage facilities
 
88.60.K- Hydroturbines
 
88.60.kc Cross-flow turbines
 
88.60.kf Francis hydropower turbines
 
88.60.kj Free-flow turbines
 
88.60.km Impulse turbines
 
88.60.kp Pelton hydropower turbines
 
88.60.kr Propeller turbines
 
88.60.kt Reaction turbines
 
88.60.N- Emerging hydropower technologies
 
88.60.nf Energy from ocean waves (see also 92.05.Jn Ocean energy extraction in oceanography)
 
88.60.nh Tidal energy
 
88.60.nj Marine thermal gradients
 
88.60.nm Energy from ocean currents
 
88.60.np Natural water flow in rivers
 
88.60.nr Ocean thermal energy
 
88.80.-q Energy delivery and storage
 
88.80.Cd Grid-connected distributed energy resources
 
88.80.F- Energy storage technologies (see also 84.60.Ve Energy storage systems, including capacitor banks)
 
88.80.ff Batteries (for lithium-ion batteries, see 82.47.Aa; for lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride batteries, see 82.47.Cb; see also 88.85.jk, and 88.85.jm in advanced vehicles)
 
88.80.fh Supercapacitors (see also 82.47.Uv Electrochemical capacitors; supercapacitors)
 
88.80.fj Superconducting magnetic energy storage (see also 84.71.-b Superconducting high-power technology)
 
88.80.H- Electric power transmission (see also 84.70.+p High-current and high-voltage technology: power systems; power transmission lines and cables; and 84.71.-b Superconducting high-power technology)
 
88.80.hh Transmission grids
 
88.80.hj High-voltage direct current transmission
 
88.80.hm ac power transmission
 
88.80.hp Radio-frequency power transmission
 
88.80.hr Superconducting cables (see also 84.71.Fk Superconducting cables in superconducting high power technology)
 
88.80.ht Wireless power transmission
 
88.80.Kg Energy delivery infrastructure
 
88.85.-r Advanced vehicles
 
88.85.Cd Fuel cell vehicles (FCVs)
 
88.85.Fg Plug-in hybrid vehicles (HEVs)
 
88.85.Hj Electric vehicles (EVs)
 
88.85.J- Vehicle energy storage
 
88.85.jk Lead-acid batteries (for lead-acid batteries in applied electrochemistry, see 82.47.Cb)
 
88.85.jm Nickel-metal hydride batteries (for nickel-metal hydride batteries in applied electrochemistry, see 82.47.Cb)
 
88.85.jp Ultracapacitors
 
88.85.M- Alternative fuels for advanced vehicles
 
88.85.mb Biodiesel (see also 88.20.fk Biodiesel in renewable alternative fuels)
 
88.85.md Propane
 
88.85.mf Natural gas
 
88.85.mh Hydrogen (see also 88.20.fn Hydrogen in renewable alternative fuels)
 
88.85.mj Ethanol (see also 88.20.ff Ethanol in renewable alternative fuels)
 
88.85.mn Fuel blends
 
88.85.Pq Fueling stations for advanced vehicles
 
88.90.+t Other topics in renewable energy and applications (restricted to new topics in section 88)
 
89. Other areas of applied and interdisciplinary physics (for materials science, see section 81; for physical chemistry, see section 82; for rheology, see section 83; for electrical, radiowave and microwave technology, see section 84; for electronic and magnetic devices and microelectronics, see section 85; for biological and medical physics, see section 87)
 
89.20.-a Interdisciplinary applications of physics
 
89.20.Bb Industrial and technological research and development
 
89.20.Dd Military technology and weapons systems; arms control
 
89.20.Ff Computer science and technology
 
89.20.Hh World Wide Web, Internet
 
89.20.Kk Engineering (for electrochemical engineering, see 82.47.Wx; for biomedical engineering, see 87.85.-d; for reservoir engineering in geothermal energy, see 88.10.G-; for nuclear engineering, see 28.00.00)
 
89.20.Mn Forensic science (for forensic acoustics, see 43.72.Uv—in Acoustics Appendix)
 
89.30.-g Fossil fuels and nuclear power (for renewable energy resources, see section 88)
 
89.30.A- Fossil fuels
 
89.30.ag Coal
 
89.30.aj Oil, petroleum
 
89.30.an Natural gas
 
89.30.Gg Nuclear fission power (for fission reactors, see 28.41.-i and 28.50.-k in nuclear physics)
 
89.30.Jj Nuclear fusion power (for fusion reactors, see 28.52.-s in nuclear physics)
 
89.40.-a Transportation
 
89.40.Bb Land transportation
 
89.40.Cc Water transportation
 
89.40.Dd Air transporation
 
89.60.-k Environmental studies (for ecology, see 87.23.-n; for environmental impacts of renewable energy, see 88.05.Np)
 
89.60.Ec Environmental safety (for air quality, see 92.60.Sz; for water quality, see 92.40.kc, and 92.40.qc in Geophysics Appendix)
 
89.60.Fe Environmental regulations (see also 01.78.+p Science and government)
 
89.60.Gg Impact of natural and man-made disasters (for volcanic eruption effects on the atmosphere, see 92.60.Zc; for landslides, see 92.40.Ha; for floods, see 92.40.qp in Geophysics Appendix; for avalanches, see 92.40.vw in Geophysics Appendix; for global warming, see 92.70.Mn, for sea level change, see 92.70.Jw; for cryospheric change, see 92.70.Ha)
 
89.65.-s Social and economic systems
 
89.65.Cd Demographic studies
 
89.65.Ef Social organizations; anthropology
 
89.65.Gh Economics; econophysics, financial markets, business and management (for economic issues regarding production and use of renewable energy, see 88.05.Lg)
 
89.65.Lm Urban planning and construction (for energy efficient buildings utilizing solar power, see 88.40.M-)
 
89.70.-a Information and communication theory (for telecommunications, see 84.40.Ua; for optical communications, see 42.79.Sz; for quantum information, see 03.67.-a; for applications to neuroscience, see 87.19.lo)
 
89.70.Cf Entropy and other measures of information
 
89.70.Eg Computational complexity
 
89.70.Hj Communication complexity
 
89.70.Kn Channel capacity and error-correcting codes
 
89.75.-k Complex systems (for complex chemical systems, see 82.40.Qt; for biological complexity, see 87.18.-h)
 
89.75.Da Systems obeying scaling laws
 
89.75.Fb Structures and organization in complex systems
 
89.75.Hc Networks and genealogical trees
 
89.75.Kd Patterns
 
89.90.+n Other topics in areas of applied and interdisciplinary physics (restricted to new topics in section 89)
 

 

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