PACS Reg70

PACS 2010 Regular Edition—Sec. 70

71. Electronic structure of bulk materials (see section 73 for electronic structure of surfaces, interfaces, low-dimensional structures, and nanomaterials; for electronic structure of superconductors, see 74.25.Jb)
71.10.-w Theories and models of many-electron systems
71.10.Ay Fermi-liquid theory and other phenomenological models
71.10.Ca Electron gas, Fermi gas
71.10.Fd Lattice fermion models (Hubbard model, etc.)
71.10.Hf Non-Fermi-liquid ground states, electron phase diagrams and phase transitions in model systems
71.10.Li Excited states and pairing interactions in model systems
71.10.Pm Fermions in reduced dimensions (anyons, composite fermions, Luttinger liquid, etc.) (for anyon mechanism in superconductors, see 74.20.Mn)
71.15.-m Methods of electronic structure calculations (see also 31.15.-p Calculations and mathematical techniques in atomic and molecular physics; for electronic structure calculations of superconducting materials, see 74.20.Pq)
71.15.Ap Basis sets (LCAO, plane-wave, APW, etc.) and related methodology (scattering methods, ASA, linearized methods, etc.)
71.15.Dx Computational methodology (Brillouin zone sampling, iterative diagonalization, pseudopotential construction)
71.15.Mb Density functional theory, local density approximation, gradient and other corrections
71.15.Nc Total energy and cohesive energy calculations
71.15.Pd Molecular dynamics calculations (Car-Parrinello) and other numerical simulations
71.15.Qe Excited states: methodology (see also 71.10.Li Excited states and pairing interactions in model systems)
71.15.Rf Relativistic effects [see also 31.30.J- Relativistic and quantum electrodynamic (QED) effects in atoms, molecules, and ions]
71.18.+y Fermi surface: calculations and measurements; effective mass, g factor
71.20.-b Electron density of states and band structure of crystalline solids
71.20.Be Transition metals and alloys
71.20.Dg Alkali and alkaline earth metals
71.20.Eh Rare earth metals and alloys
71.20.Gj Other metals and alloys
71.20.Lp Intermetallic compounds
71.20.Mq Elemental semiconductors
71.20.Nr Semiconductor compounds
71.20.Ps Other inorganic compounds
71.20.Rv Polymers and organic compounds
71.20.Tx Fullerenes and related materials; intercalation compounds
... ... ... Photonic band-gap materials, see 42.70.Qs
71.22.+i Electronic structure of liquid metals and semiconductors and their alloys
71.23.-k Electronic structure of disordered solids
71.23.An Theories and models; localized states
71.23.Cq Amorphous semiconductors, metallic glasses, glasses
71.23.Ft Quasicrystals
71.27.+a Strongly correlated electron systems; heavy fermions
71.28.+d Narrow-band systems; intermediate-valence solids (for magnetic aspects, see 75.20.Hr and 75.30.Mb in magnetic properties and materials)
71.30.+h Metal-insulator transitions and other electronic transitions
71.35.-y Excitons and related phenomena
71.35.Aa Frenkel excitons and self-trapped excitons
71.35.Cc Intrinsic properties of excitons; optical absorption spectra
71.35.Ee Electron-hole drops and electron-hole plasma
71.35.Gg Exciton-mediated interactions
71.35.Ji Excitons in magnetic fields; magnetoexcitons
71.35.Lk Collective effects (Bose effects, phase space filling, and excitonic phase transitions)
71.35.Pq Charged excitons (trions)
71.36.+c Polaritons (including photon-phonon and photon-magnon interactions)
71.38.-k Polarons and electron-phonon interactions (see also 63.20.K- Phonon interactions in lattice dynamics)
71.38.Cn Mass renormalization in metals
71.38.Fp Large or Fröhlich polarons
71.38.Ht Self-trapped or small polarons
71.38.Mx Bipolarons
71.45.-d Collective effects
71.45.Gm Exchange, correlation, dielectric and magnetic response functions, plasmons
71.45.Lr Charge-density-wave systems (see also 75.30.Fv Spin-density waves)
71.55.-i Impurity and defect levels
71.55.Ak Metals, semimetals, and alloys
71.55.Cn Elemental semiconductors
71.55.Eq III-V semiconductors
71.55.Gs II-VI semiconductors
71.55.Ht Other nonmetals
71.55.Jv Disordered structures; amorphous and glassy solids
71.60.+z Positron states (for positron annihilation, see 78.70.Bj)
71.70.-d Level splitting and interactions (see also 73.20.-r Surface and interface electron states; 75.30.Et Exchange and superexchange interactions)
71.70.Ch Crystal and ligand fields
71.70.Di Landau levels
71.70.Ej Spin-orbit coupling, Zeeman and Stark splitting, Jahn-Teller effect
71.70.Fk Strain-induced splitting
71.70.Gm Exchange interactions
71.70.Jp Nuclear states and interactions
71.90.+q Other topics in electronic structure (restricted to new topics in section 71)
72. Electronic transport in condensed matter (for electronic transport in surfaces, interfaces, and thin films, see section 73; for electrical properties related to treatment conditions, see 81.40.Rs; for transport properties of superconductors, see 74.25.F-; for electrical properties of tissues and organs, see 87.19.R- in biological physics)
72.10.-d Theory of electronic transport; scattering mechanisms
72.10.Bg General formulation of transport theory
72.10.Di Scattering by phonons, magnons, and other nonlocalized excitations (see also 71.45.-d Collective effects in electronic structure of bulk materials)
72.10.Fk Scattering by point defects, dislocations, surfaces, and other imperfections (including Kondo effect)
72.15.-v Electronic conduction in metals and alloys
72.15.Cz Electrical and thermal conduction in amorphous and liquid metals and alloys
72.15.Eb Electrical and thermal conduction in crystalline metals and alloys
72.15.Gd Galvanomagnetic and other magnetotransport effects (see also 75.47.-m Magnetotransport phenomena; materials for magnetotransport)
72.15.Jf Thermoelectric and thermomagnetic effects
72.15.Lh Relaxation times and mean free paths
72.15.Nj Collective modes (e.g., in one-dimensional conductors)
72.15.Qm Scattering mechanisms and Kondo effect (see also 75.20.Hr Local moments in compounds and alloys; Kondo effect, valence fluctuations, heavy fermions in magnetic properties and materials)
72.15.Rn Localization effects (Anderson or weak localization)
72.20.-i Conductivity phenomena in semiconductors and insulators (see also 66.70.-f Nonelectronic thermal conduction and heat-pulse propagation in solids; thermal waves)
72.20.Dp General theory, scattering mechanisms
72.20.Ee Mobility edges; hopping transport
72.20.Fr Low-field transport and mobility; piezoresistance
72.20.Ht High-field and nonlinear effects
72.20.Jv Charge carriers: generation, recombination, lifetime, and trapping
72.20.My Galvanomagnetic and other magnetotransport effects
72.20.Pa Thermoelectric and thermomagnetic effects
72.25.-b Spin polarized transport (for spin polarized transport devices, see 85.75.-d)
72.25.Ba Spin polarized transport in metals
72.25.Dc Spin polarized transport in semiconductors
72.25.Fe Optical creation of spin polarized carriers
72.25.Hg Electrical injection of spin polarized carriers
72.25.Mk Spin transport through interfaces
72.25.Pn Current-driven spin pumping
72.25.Rb Spin relaxation and scattering
72.30.+q High-frequency effects; plasma effects
72.40.+w Photoconduction and photovoltaic effects
72.50.+b Acoustoelectric effects
72.55.+s Magnetoacoustic effects (see also 75.80.+q Magnetomechanical effects, magnetostriction)
72.60.+g Mixed conductivity and conductivity transitions
72.70.+m Noise processes and phenomena
72.80.-r Conductivity of specific materials (for conductivity of metals and alloys, see 72.15.-v)
72.80.Cw Elemental semiconductors
72.80.Ey III-V and II-VI semiconductors
72.80.Ga Transition-metal compounds
72.80.Jc Other crystalline inorganic semiconductors
72.80.Le Polymers; organic compounds (including organic semiconductors)
72.80.Ng Disordered solids
72.80.Ph Liquid semiconductors
72.80.Rj Fullerenes and related materials
72.80.Sk Insulators
72.80.Tm Composite materials
72.80.Vp Electronic transport in graphene
72.90.+y Other topics in electronic transport in condensed matter (restricted to new topics in section 72)
73. Electronic structure and electrical properties of surfaces, interfaces, thin films, and low-dimensional structures (for electronic structure and electrical properties of superconducting films and low-dimensional structures, see 74.78.-w; for computational methodology for electronic structure calculations in condensed matter, see 71.15.-m)
73.20.-r Electron states at surfaces and interfaces
73.20.At Surface states, band structure, electron density of states
73.20.Fz Weak or Anderson localization
73.20.Hb Impurity and defect levels; energy states of adsorbed species
73.20.Jc Delocalization processes
73.20.Mf Collective excitations (including excitons, polarons, plasmons and other charge-density excitations) (for collective excitations in quantum Hall effects, see 73.43.Lp)
73.20.Qt Electron solids
73.21.-b Electron states and collective excitations in multilayers, quantum wells, mesoscopic, and nanoscale systems (for electron states in nanoscale materials, see 73.22.-f)
73.21.Ac Multilayers
73.21.Cd Superlattices
73.21.Fg Quantum wells
73.21.Hb Quantum wires
73.21.La Quantum dots
73.22.-f Electronic structure of nanoscale materials and related systems
73.22.Dj Single particle states
73.22.Gk Broken symmetry phases
73.22.Lp Collective excitations
73.22.Pr Electronic structure of graphene
73.23.-b Electronic transport in mesoscopic systems
73.23.Ad Ballistic transport
73.23.Hk Coulomb blockade; single-electron tunneling
73.23.Ra Persistent currents
73.25.+i Surface conductivity and carrier phenomena
73.30.+y Surface double layers, Schottky barriers, and work functions (see also 82.45.Mp Thin layers, films, monolayers, membranes in electrochemistry; see also 87.16.D- Membranes, bilayers, and vesicles in biological physics)
73.40.-c Electronic transport in interface structures
73.40.Cg Contact resistance, contact potential
73.40.Ei Rectification
73.40.Gk Tunneling (for tunneling in quantum Hall effects, see 73.43.Jn)
73.40.Jn Metal-to-metal contacts
73.40.Kp III-V semiconductor-to-semiconductor contacts, p-n junctions, and heterojunctions
73.40.Lq Other semiconductor-to-semiconductor contacts, p-n junctions, and heterojunctions
73.40.Mr Semiconductor-electrolyte contacts
73.40.Ns Metal-nonmetal contacts
73.40.Qv Metal-insulator-semiconductor structures (including semiconductor-to-insulator)
73.40.Rw Metal-insulator-metal structures
73.40.Sx Metal-semiconductor-metal structures
73.40.Ty Semiconductor-insulator-semiconductor structures
73.40.Vz Semiconductor-metal-semiconductor structures
73.43.-f Quantum Hall effects
73.43.Cd Theory and modeling
73.43.Fj Novel experimental methods; measurements
73.43.Jn Tunneling
73.43.Lp Collective excitations
73.43.Nq Quantum phase transitions (see also 64.70.Tg Quantum phase transitions in equations of state, phase equilibria and phase transitions)
73.43.Qt Magnetoresistance (see also 75.47.-m Magnetotransport phenomena; materials for magnetotransport in magnetic properties and materials)
73.50.-h Electronic transport phenomena in thin films (for electronic transport in mesoscopic systems, see 73.23.-b; see also 73.40.-c Electronic transport in interface structures; for electronic transport in nanoscale materials and structures, see 73.63.-b)
73.50.Bk General theory, scattering mechanisms
73.50.Dn Low-field transport and mobility; piezoresistance
73.50.Fq High-field and nonlinear effects
73.50.Gr Charge carriers: generation, recombination, lifetime, trapping, mean free paths
73.50.Jt Galvanomagnetic and other magnetotransport effects (including thermomagnetic effects)
73.50.Lw Thermoelectric effects
73.50.Mx High-frequency effects; plasma effects
73.50.Pz Photoconduction and photovoltaic effects
73.50.Rb Acoustoelectric and magnetoacoustic effects
73.50.Td Noise processes and phenomena
73.61.-r Electrical properties of specific thin films (for optical properties of thin films, see 78.20.-e and 78.66.-w; for magnetic properties of thin films, see 75.70.-i)
73.61.At Metal and metallic alloys
73.61.Cw Elemental semiconductors
73.61.Ey III-V semiconductors
73.61.Ga II-VI semiconductors
73.61.Jc Amorphous semiconductors; glasses
73.61.Le Other inorganic semiconductors
73.61.Ng Insulators
73.61.Ph Polymers; organic compounds
73.61.Wp Fullerenes and related materials
73.63.-b Electronic transport in nanoscale materials and structures (see also 73.23.-b Electronic transport in mesoscopic systems)
73.63.Bd Nanocrystalline materials
73.63.Fg Nanotubes
73.63.Hs Quantum wells
73.63.Kv Quantum dots
73.63.Nm Quantum wires
73.63.Rt Nanoscale contacts
73.90.+f Other topics in electronic structure and electrical properties of surfaces, interfaces, thin films, and low-dimensional structures (Restricted to new topics in section 73)
74. Superconductivity (for superconducting devices, see 85.25.-j)
74.10.+v Occurrence, potential candidates
74.20.-z Theories and models of superconducting state
74.20.De Phenomenological theories (two-fluid, Ginzburg-Landau, etc.)
74.20.Fg BCS theory and its development
74.20.Mn Nonconventional mechanisms
74.20.Pq Electronic structure calculations (for methods of electronic structure calculations, see 71.15.-m)
74.20.Rp Pairing symmetries (other than s-wave)
74.25.-q Properties of superconductors
74.25.Bt Thermodynamic properties
74.25.Dw Superconductivity phase diagrams
74.25.F- Transport properties
74.25.fc Electric and thermal conductivity
74.25.fg Thermoelectric effects
74.25.Gz Optical properties
74.25.Ha Magnetic properties including vortex structures and related phenomena (for vortices, magnetic bubbles, and magnetic domain structure, see 75.70.Kw)
74.25.Jb Electronic structure (photoemission, etc.)
74.25.Kc Phonons
74.25.Ld Mechanical and acoustical properties, elasticity, and ultrasonic attenuation (see also 43.35.Cg Ultrasonic velocity, dispersion, scattering, diffraction, and attenuation in solids; elastic constants—in Acoustics Appendix)
74.25.N- Response to electromagnetic fields
74.25.nd Raman and optical spectroscopy
74.25.nj Nuclear magnetic resonance
74.25.nn Surface impedance
74.25.Op Mixed states, critical fields, and surface sheaths
74.25.Sv Critical currents
74.25.Uv Vortex phases (includes vortex lattices, vortex liquids, and vortex glasses)
74.25.Wx Vortex pinning (includes mechanisms and flux creep)
74.40.-n Fluctuation phenomena
74.40.De Noise and chaos (see also 05.45.-a Nonlinear dynamics and chaos; for noise in general studies of fluctuation phenomena, see 05.40.Ca)
74.40.Gh Nonequilibrium superconductivity
74.40.Kb Quantum critical phenomena
74.45.+c Proximity effects; Andreev reflection; SN and SNS junctions
74.50.+r Tunneling phenomena; Josephson effects (for SQUIDs, see 85.25.Dq; for Josephson devices, see 85.25.Cp; for Josephson junction arrays, see 74.81.Fa)
74.55.+v Tunneling phenomena: single particle tunneling and STM
74.62.-c Transition temperature variations, phase diagrams
74.62.Bf Effects of material synthesis, crystal structure, and chemical composition (for methods of materials synthesis, see 81.20.-n)
74.62.Dh Effects of crystal defects, doping and substitution (for specific crystal defects, see 61.72.-y)
74.62.En Effects of disorder
74.62.Fj Effects of pressure
74.62.Yb Other effects
74.70.-b Superconducting materials other than cuprates (for cuprates, see 74.72.-h; for superconducting films, see 74.78.-w)
74.70.Ad Metals; alloys and binary compounds (including A15, MgB2, etc.)
74.70.Dd Ternary, quaternary, and multinary compounds (including Chevrel phases, borocarbides, etc.)
74.70.Kn Organic superconductors
74.70.Pq Ruthenates
74.70.Tx Heavy-fermion superconductors (for heavy-fermion systems in magnetically ordered materials, see 75.30.Mb; see also 71.27.+a Strongly correlated electron systems, heavy fermions)
74.70.Wz Carbon-based superconductors
74.70.Xa Pnictides and chalcogenides
74.72.-h Cuprate superconductors
74.72.Cj Insulating parent compounds
74.72.Ek Electron-doped
74.72.Gh Hole-doped
74.72.Kf Pseudogap regime
74.78.-w Superconducting films and low-dimensional structures
74.78.Fk Multilayers, superlattices, heterostructures
74.78.Na Mesoscopic and nanoscale systems
74.81.-g Inhomogeneous superconductors and superconducting systems, including electronic inhomogeneities
74.81.Bd Granular, melt-textured, amorphous, and composite superconductors
74.81.Fa Josephson junction arrays and wire networks (see also 85.25.Cp Josephson devices)
74.90.+n Other topics in superconductivity (restricted to new topics in section 74)
75. Magnetic properties and materials (for magnetic properties of quantum solids, see; for magnetic properties related to treatment conditions, see 81.40.Rs; for magnetic properties of superconductors, see 74.25.Ha; for magnetic properties of rocks and minerals, see 91.60.Pn; for magnetic properties of nanostructures, see 75.75.-c; for magnetic devices, see 85.70.-w; for magnetoelectronics and spintronics, see 85.75.-d)
75.10.-b General theory and models of magnetic ordering (see also 05.50.+q Lattice theory and statistics)
75.10.Dg Crystal-field theory and spin Hamiltonians (see also 71.70.Ch Crystal and ligand fields)
75.10.Hk Classical spin models
75.10.Jm Quantized spin models, including quantum spin frustration
75.10.Kt Quantum spin liquids, valence bond phases and related phenomena
75.10.Lp Band and itinerant models
75.10.Nr Spin-glass and other random models (for spin glasses and other random magnets, see 75.50.Lk)
75.10.Pq Spin chain models
75.20.-g Diamagnetism, paramagnetism, and superparamagnetism
75.20.Ck Nonmetals
75.20.En Metals and alloys
75.20.Hr Local moment in compounds and alloys; Kondo effect, valence fluctuations, heavy fermions (for Kondo effect and scattering mechanisms in electronic conduction, see 72.15.Qm and 72.10.Fk)
75.25.-j Spin arrangements in magnetically ordered materials (including neutron and spin-polarized electron studies, synchrotron-source x-ray scattering, etc.) (for devices exploiting spin polarized transport, see 85.75.-d)
75.25.Dk Orbital, charge, and other orders, including coupling of these orders
75.30.-m Intrinsic properties of magnetically ordered materials (for critical point effects, see 75.40.-s; for magnetotransport phenomena, see 75.47.-m)
75.30.Cr Saturation moments and magnetic susceptibilities
75.30.Ds Spin waves (for spin-wave resonance, see 76.50.+g)
75.30.Et Exchange and superexchange interactions (see also 71.70.Gm Exchange interactions)
75.30.Fv Spin-density waves
75.30.Gw Magnetic anisotropy
75.30.Hx Magnetic impurity interactions
75.30.Kz Magnetic phase boundaries (including classical and quantum magnetic transitions, metamagnetism, etc.) (for ferroelectric phase transitions, see 77.80.B-; for superconductivity phase diagrams, see 74.25.Dw)
75.30.Mb Valence fluctuation, Kondo lattice, and heavy-fermion phenomena (see also 71.27.+a Strongly correlated electron systems, heavy fermions; for heavy-fermion superconductors, see 74.70.Tx)
75.30.Sg Magnetocaloric effect, magnetic cooling (for cryogenics, see 07.20.Mc)
75.30.Wx Spin crossover
75.40.-s Critical-point effects, specific heats, short-range order (for equilibrium properties near critical points, see 64.60.F-; for dynamical critical phenomena, see 64.60.Ht)
75.40.Cx Static properties (order parameter, static susceptibility, heat capacities, critical exponents, etc.)
75.40.Gb Dynamic properties (dynamic susceptibility, spin waves, spin diffusion, dynamic scaling, etc.)
75.40.Mg Numerical simulation studies
75.45.+j Macroscopic quantum phenomena in magnetic systems
75.47.-m Magnetotransport phenomena; materials for magnetotransport (for spintronics, see 85.75.-d; see also 72.25.-b Spin polarized transport; 72.15.Gd Galvanomagnetic and other magnetotransport effects; for magnetotransport effects in thin films, see 73.50.Jt; see also 73.43.Qt Magnetoresistance)
75.47.De Giant magnetoresistance
75.47.Gk Colossal magnetoresistance
75.47.Lx Magnetic oxides
75.47.Np Metals and alloys
75.47.Pq Other materials
75.50.-y Studies of specific magnetic materials
75.50.Bb Fe and its alloys
75.50.Cc Other ferromagnetic metals and alloys
75.50.Dd Nonmetallic ferromagnetic materials
75.50.Ee Antiferromagnetics
75.50.Gg Ferrimagnetics
75.50.Kj Amorphous and quasicrystalline magnetic materials
75.50.Lk Spin glasses and other random magnets
75.50.Mm Magnetic liquids
75.50.Pp Magnetic semiconductors
75.50.Ss Magnetic recording materials (for magnetic recording devices, see 85.70.Li)
75.50.Tt Fine-particle systems; nanocrystalline materials
75.50.Vv High coercivity materials
75.50.Ww Permanent magnets (for magnets, see 07.55.Db in instruments)
75.50.Xx Molecular magnets
75.60.-d Domain effects, magnetization curves, and hysteresis (for dynamics of domain structures, see 75.78.Fg)
75.60.Ch Domain walls and domain structure (for magnetic bubbles and vortices, see 75.70.Kw)
75.60.Ej Magnetization curves, hysteresis, Barkhausen and related effects (for hysteresis in ferroelectricity, see 77.80.Dj)
75.60.Jk Magnetization reversal mechanisms
75.60.Lr Magnetic aftereffects
75.60.Nt Magnetic annealing and temperature-hysteresis effects
75.70.-i Magnetic properties of thin films, surfaces, and interfaces (for magnetic properties of nanostructures, see 75.75.-c)
75.70.Ak Magnetic properties of monolayers and thin films
75.70.Cn Magnetic properties of interfaces (multilayers, superlattices, heterostructures)
75.70.Kw Domain structure (including magnetic bubbles and vortices) (for domain structure in ferroelectricity and antiferroelectricity, see 77.80.Dj)
75.70.Rf Surface magnetism
75.70.Tj Spin-orbit effects (see also 71.70.Ej Spin-orbit coupling, Zeeman and Stark splitting, Jahn-Teller effect)
75.75.-c Magnetic properties of nanostructures
75.75.Cd Fabrication of magnetic nanostructures (see also 81.16.-c Methods of micro- and nanofabrication and processing, and 81.07.-b Nanoscale materials and structures: fabrication and characterization)
75.75.Fk Domain structures in nanoparticles
75.75.Jn Dynamics of magnetic nanoparticles
75.75.Lf Electronic structure of magnetic nanoparticles
75.76.+j Spin transport effects (for devices exploiting spin polarized transport, see 85.75.Hh, 85.75.Mm, and 85.75.Ss)
75.78.-n Magnetization dynamics
75.78.Cd Micromagnetic simulations
75.78.Fg Dynamics of domain structures
75.78.Jp Ultrafast magnetization dynamics and switching (for switching phenomena in ferroelectrics, see 77.80.Fm; for ultrafast spectroscopy, see 78.47.J-; for ultrafast processes in optics, see 42.65.Re)
75.80.+q Magnetomechanical effects, magnetostriction (for magnetostrictive devices, see 85.70.Ec)
... ... ... Galvanomagnetic effects, see 72.15.Gd and 72.20.My
... ... ... Magnetooptical effects, see 78.20.Ls
75.85.+t Magnetoelectric effects, multiferroics (for multiferroics and magnetoelectric films, see 77.55.Nv)
75.90.+w Other topics in magnetic properties and materials (restricted to new topics in section 75)
76. Magnetic resonances and relaxations in condensed matter, Mössbauer effect (for magnetic resonance spectrometers, see 07.57.Pt)
76.20.+q General theory of resonances and relaxations
76.30.-v Electron paramagnetic resonance and relaxation (see also 33.35.+r Electron resonance and relaxation in atomic and molecular physics; 87.80.Lg Magnetic and paramagnetic resonance in biological physics)
76.30.Da Ions and impurities: general
76.30.Fc Iron group (3d) ions and impurities (Ti-Cu)
76.30.He Platinum and palladium group (4d and 5d) ions and impurities (Zr-Ag and Hf-Au)
76.30.Kg Rare-earth ions and impurities
76.30.Lh Other ions and impurities
76.30.Mi Color centers and other defects
76.30.Pk Conduction electrons
76.30.Rn Free radicals
76.40.+b Diamagnetic and cyclotron resonances
76.50.+g Ferromagnetic, antiferromagnetic, and ferrimagnetic resonances; spin-wave resonance (see also 75.30.Ds Spin waves)
76.60.-k Nuclear magnetic resonance and relaxation (see also 33.25.+k Nuclear resonance and relaxation in atomic and molecular physics and 82.56.-b Nuclear magnetic resonance in physical chemistry and chemical physics; for structure determination using magnetic resonance techniques, see 61.05.Qr; for biophysical applications, see 87.80.Lg; for NMR in superconducting materials, see 74.25.nj)
76.60.Cq Chemical and Knight shifts
76.60.Es Relaxation effects
76.60.Gv Quadrupole resonance
76.60.Jx Effects of internal magnetic fields
76.60.Lz Spin echoes
76.60.Pc NMR imaging (for medical NMR imaging, see 87.61.-c)
76.70.-r Magnetic double resonances and cross effects (see also 33.40.+f Multiple resonances in atomic and molecular physics)
76.70.Dx Electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR), electron double resonance (ELDOR)
76.70.Fz Double nuclear magnetic resonance (DNMR), dynamical nuclear polarization
76.70.Hb Optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR)
76.75.+i Muon spin rotation and relaxation
76.80.+y Mössbauer effect; other γ-ray spectroscopy (see also 33.45.+x Mössbauer spectra—in atomic and molecular physics; for biophysical applications, see 87.64.kx; for chemical analysis applications, see 82.80.Ej)
76.90.+d Other topics in magnetic resonances and relaxations (restricted to new topics in section 76)
77. Dielectrics, piezoelectrics, and ferroelectrics and their properties (for conductivity phenomena, see 72.20.-i and 72.80.-r; for dielectric properties related to treatment conditions, see 81.40.Tv)
77.22.-d Dielectric properties of solids and liquids (for dielectric properties of tissues and organs, see 87.19.rf)
77.22.Ch Permittivity (dielectric function) (for low-permittivity dielectric films, see 77.55.Bh; for high-permittivity gate dielectric films, 77.55.D-)
77.22.Ej Polarization and depolarization
77.22.Gm Dielectric loss and relaxation
77.22.Jp Dielectric breakdown and space-charge effects (for dielectric breakdown in gases, see 51.50.+v)
77.55.-g Dielectric thin films (see also 85.50.-n Dielectric, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric devices; for microelectronics applications, see 85.40.-e; for methods of film deposition, see 81.15.-z)
77.55.Bh Low-permittivity dielectric films
77.55.D- High-permittivity gate dielectric films
77.55.df For silicon electronics For nonsilicon electronics (Ge, III-V, II-VI, organic electronics)
77.55.F- High-permittivity capacitive films
77.55.fb Paraelectric films
77.55.fe BaTiO3-based films
77.55.fg Pb(Zr,Ti)O3-based films Niobate- and tantalate-based films
77.55.fp Other ferroelectric films
77.55.H- Piezoelectric and electrostrictive films
77.55.hd AlN
77.55.hf ZnO
77.55.hj PZT Other piezoelectric or electrostrictive films
77.55.Kt Pyroelectric films
77.55.Nv Multiferroic/magnetoelectric films
77.55.Px Epitaxial and superlattice films
77.65.-j Piezoelectricity and electromechanical effects
77.65.Bn Piezoelectric and electrostrictive constants
77.65.Dq Acoustoelectric effects and surface acoustic waves (SAW) in piezoelectrics (see also 43.35.Pt Surface waves in solids and liquids—in Acoustics Appendix; for surface acoustic wave transducers, see 43.38.Rh—in Acoustics Appendix; for acousto-optical effects, see 78.20.hb, and 43.35.Sx—in Acoustics Appendix)
77.65.Fs Electromechanical resonance; quartz resonators
77.65.Ly Strain-induced piezoelectric fields
77.70.+a Pyroelectric and electrocaloric effects
77.80.-e Ferroelectricity and antiferroelectricity
77.80.B- Phase transitions and Curie point (for Curie point in ferromagnetic materials, see 75.30.Kz) Compositional effects Scaling effects Strain and interface effects
77.80.Dj Domain structure; hysteresis (for domain structure and hysteresis in ferromagnetic materials, see 75.60.-d)
77.80.Fm Switching phenomena (for ultrafast magnetization dynamics and switching, see 75.78.Jp; for spintronics, see 85.75.-d)
77.80.Jk Relaxor ferroelectrics
77.84.-s Dielectric, piezoelectric, ferroelectric, and antiferroelectric materials (for nonlinear optical materials, see 42.70.Mp; for dielectric materials in electrochemistry, see 82.45.Un)
77.84.Bw Elements, oxides, nitrides, borides, carbides, chalcogenides, etc.
77.84.Cg PZT ceramics and other titanates
77.84.Ek Niobates and tantalates
77.84.Fa KDP- and TGS-type crystals
77.84.Jd Polymers; organic compounds
77.84.Lf Composite materials
77.84.Nh Liquids, emulsions, and suspensions; liquid crystals (for structure of liquid crystals, see 61.30.-v)
77.90.+k Other topics in dielectrics, piezoelectrics, and ferroelectrics and their properties (restricted to new topics in section 77)
78. Optical properties, condensed-matter spectroscopy and other interactions of radiation and particles with condensed matter
78.15.+e Optical properties of fluid materials, supercritical fluids and liquid crystals (for reactions in supercritical fluids, see 82.33.De)
78.20.-e Optical properties of bulk materials and thin films (for optical properties related to materials treatment, see 81.40.Tv; for optical materials, see 42.70-a; for optical properties of superconductors, see 74.25.Gz; for optical properties of rocks and minerals, see 91.60.Mk; for optical properties of specific thin films, see 78.66.-w)
78.20.Bh Theory, models, and numerical simulation
78.20.Ci Optical constants (including refractive index, complex dielectric constant, absorption, reflection and transmission coefficients, emissivity)
78.20.Ek Optical activity
78.20.Fm Birefringence
78.20.H- Piezo-, elasto-optical effects (for piezoelectric and electromechanical effects, see 77.65.-j)
78.20.hb Piezo-optical, elasto-optical, acousto-optical, and photoelastic effects (see also 43.35.Sx Acousto-optical effects, optoacoustics, acoustical visualization, acoustical microscopy, and acoustical holography—in Acoustics Appendix; for acousto-optical devices, see 42.79.Jq, and 43.38.Zp—in Acoustics Appendix)
78.20.hc Laser ultrasonics
78.20.Jq Electro-optical effects (for electro-optical modulators, see 42.79.Hp)
78.20.Ls Magneto-optical effects (for magneto-optical devices, see 85.70.Sq)
78.20.Mg Photorefractive effects (see also 42.65.Hw Phase conjugation; photorefractive and Kerr effects; for photorefractive materials, see 42.70.Nq in Optics)
78.20.N- Thermo-optic effects
78.20.nb Photothermal effects (for deep-level photothermal spectroscopy, see 79.10.Ca) Photopyroelectric effects (for pyroelectric effects, see 77.70.+a)
78.20.nd Thermophotonic effects (see also 79.10.-n Thermoelectronic phenomena)
78.20.Pa Photoacoustic effects (see also 78.20.hb Piezo-optical, elasto-optical, acousto-optical, and photoelastic effects; for photoacoustic transducers, see 43.38.Zp—in Acoustics Appendix)
78.30.-j Infrared and Raman spectra (for vibrational states in crystals and disordered systems, see 63.20.-e and 63.50.-x, respectively; for Raman spectra of superconductors, see 74.25.nd)
78.30.Am Elemental semiconductors and insulators
78.30.C- Liquids
78.30.cb Organic liquids Inorganic liquids Solutions and ionic liquids
78.30.Er Solid metals and alloys
78.30.Fs III-V and II-VI semiconductors
78.30.Hv Other nonmetallic inorganics
78.30.Jw Organic compounds, polymers
78.30.Ly Disordered solids
78.30.Na Fullerenes and related materials
78.35.+c Brillouin and Rayleigh scattering; other light scattering (for Raman scattering, see 78.30.-j; for time resolved light scattering spectroscopy, see
78.40.-q Absorption and reflection spectra: visible and ultraviolet (for infrared spectra, see 78.30.-j; for optical spectra of superconductors, see 74.25.nd; for time resolved reflection spectroscopy, see 78.47.jg; for multiphoton absorption, see 79.20.Ws in impact phenomena)
78.40.Dw Liquids
78.40.Fy Semiconductors
78.40.Ha Other nonmetallic inorganics
78.40.Kc Metals, semimetals, and alloys
78.40.Me Organic compounds and polymers
78.40.Pg Disordered solids
78.40.Ri Fullerenes and related materials
78.45.+h Stimulated emission (see also 42.55.-f Lasers)
78.47.-p Spectroscopy of solid state dynamics
78.47.D- Time resolved spectroscopy (>1 psec)
78.47.da Excited states
78.47.db Conduction electrons
78.47.dc Radicals
78.47.J- Ultrafast spectroscopy (<1 psec) (see also 42.65.Re Ultrafast processes; optical pulse generation and pulse compression; 82.53.Mj Femtosecond probing of semiconductor nanostructures)
78.47.jb Transient absorption (see also 42.50.Md Optical transient phenomena: quantum beats, photon echo, free-induction decay, dephasings and revivals, optical nutation, and self-induced transparency)
78.47.jd Time resolved luminescence Time resolved light scattering spectroscopy
78.47.jf Photon echoes (see also 42.50.Md Optical transient phenomena: quantum beats, photon echo, free-induction decay, dephasings and revivals, optical nutation, and self-induced transparency)
78.47.jg Time resolved reflection spectroscopy
78.47.jh Coherent nonlinear optical spectroscopy (see also 42.62.Fi Laser spectroscopy, and 42.65.-k Nonlinear optics)
78.47.jj Transient grating spectroscopy Quantum beats (see also 42.50.Md Optical transient phenomena: quantum beats, photon echo, free-induction decay, dephasings and revivals, optical nutation, and self-induced transparency) Optical nutation (see also 42.50.Md Optical transient phenomena: quantum beats, photon echo, free-induction decay, dephasings and revivals, optical nutation, and self-induced transparency)
78.47.js Free polarization decay
78.47.N- High resolution nonlinear optical spectroscopy (see also 42.62.Fi Laser spectroscopy, and 42.65.-k Nonlinear optics)
78.47.nd Hole burning spectroscopy
78.47.nj Four-wave mixing spectroscopy (for optical mixing and phase conjugation, see 42.65.Hw)
78.55.-m Photoluminescence, properties and materials (for time resolved luminescence, see 78.47.jd)
78.55.Ap Elemental semiconductors
78.55.Bq Liquids
78.55.Cr III-V semiconductors
78.55.Et II-VI semiconductors
78.55.Fv Solid alkali halides
78.55.Hx Other solid inorganic materials
78.55.Kz Solid organic materials
78.55.Mb Porous materials
78.55.Qr Amorphous materials; glasses and other disordered solids
78.56.-a Photoconduction and photovoltaic effects (for photoconduction and photovoltaic effects in bulk matter and thin films, see 72.40.+w and 73.50.Pz, respectively; see also 84.60.Jt Photoelectric conversion; for solar cells, see 88.40.H- and 88.40.J- in Solar energy)
78.56.Cd Photocarrier radiometry (see also 72.20.Jv Charge carriers: generation, recombination, lifetime, and trapping)
78.60.-b Other luminescence and radiative recombination
78.60.Fi Electroluminescence
78.60.Hk Cathodoluminescence, ionoluminescence
78.60.Kn Thermoluminescence
78.60.Lc Optically stimulated luminescence
78.60.Mq Sonoluminescence, triboluminescence (see also 43.35.Hl Sonoluminescence—in Acoustics Appendix)
78.60.Ps Chemiluminescence (see also 42.55.Ks Chemical lasers)
78.66.-w Optical properties of specific thin films (for optical properties of low-dimensional, mesoscopic, and nanoscale materials, see 78.67.-n; for optical properties of surfaces, see 78.68.+m)
78.66.Bz Metals and metallic alloys
78.66.Db Elemental semiconductors and insulators
78.66.Fd III-V semiconductors
78.66.Hf II-VI semiconductors
78.66.Jg Amorphous semiconductors; glasses
78.66.Li Other semiconductors
78.66.Nk Insulators
78.66.Qn Polymers; organic compounds
78.66.Sq Composite materials
78.66.Tr Fullerenes and related materials
78.66.Vs Fine-particle systems
78.67.-n Optical properties of low-dimensional, mesoscopic, and nanoscale materials and structures (for magnetic properties of nanostructures, see 75.75.-c; for electronic transport in nanoscale structures, see 73.63.-b; for mechanical properties of nanoscale systems, see 62.25.-g)
78.67.Bf Nanocrystals, nanoparticles, and nanoclusters
78.67.Ch Nanotubes
78.67.De Quantum wells
78.67.Hc Quantum dots
78.67.Lt Quantum wires
78.67.Pt Multilayers; superlattices; photonic structures; metamaterials (see also 81.05.Xj, Metamaterials for chiral, bianisotropic and other complex media)
78.67.Qa Nanorods
78.67.Rb Nanoporous materials
78.67.Sc Nanoaggregates; nanocomposites
78.67.Tf Nanodroplets
78.67.Uh Nanowires
78.67.Ve Nanomicelles
78.67.Wj Optical properties of graphene
78.68.+m Optical properties of surfaces
78.70.-g Interactions of particles and radiation with matter
78.70.Bj Positron annihilation (for positron states, see 71.60.+z in electronic structure of bulk materials; for positronium chemistry, see 82.30.Gg in physical chemistry and chemical physics)
78.70.Ck X-ray scattering
78.70.Dm X-ray absorption spectra
78.70.En X-ray emission spectra and fluorescence
78.70.Gq Microwave and radio-frequency interactions
78.70.Nx Neutron inelastic scattering
78.70.Ps Scintillation (see also 29.40.Mc, Scintillation detectors)
78.90.+t Other topics in optical properties, condensed matter spectroscopy and other interactions of particles and radiation with condensed matter (restricted to new topics in section 78)
79. Electron and ion emission by liquids and solids; impact phenomena
79.05.+c Solvated electrons
79.10.-n Thermoelectronic phenomena
79.10.Ca Deep-level photothermal spectroscopy
79.20.-m Impact phenomena (including electron spectra and sputtering)
79.20.Ap Theory of impact phenomena; numerical simulation
79.20.Ds Laser-beam impact phenomena
79.20.Eb Laser ablation
79.20.Fv Electron impact: Auger emission (for Auger electron spectroscopy, see 82.80.Pv)
79.20.Hx Electron impact: secondary emission
79.20.Kz Other electron-impact emission phenomena
79.20.La Photon- and electron-stimulated desorption (see also 68.43.Rs Electron stimulated desorption; and 68.43.Tj Photon stimulated desorption)
79.20.Mb Positron emission (for positron emission tomography, see
79.20.Rf Atomic, molecular, and ion beam impact and interactions with surfaces (for atomic and molecular beam techniques, see 37.20.+j; see also 34.35.+a Interactions of atoms and molecules with surfaces)
... ... ... Channeling, blocking, energy loss of particles, see 61.85.+p
79.20.Uv Electron energy loss spectroscopy (see also 82.80.Pv Electron spectroscopy; 34.80.-i Electron and positron scattering)
79.20.Ws Multiphoton absorption (see also 82.50.Pt Multiphoton processes in photochemistry)
79.40.+z Thermionic emission
79.60.-i Photoemission and photoelectron spectra (for photoelectron spectroscopy, see 87.64.ks in biological physics; 82.80.Pv in chemical analysis)
79.60.Bm Clean metal, semiconductor, and insulator surfaces
79.60.Cn Liquids and liquid surfaces
79.60.Dp Adsorbed layers and thin films
79.60.Fr Polymers; organic compounds
79.60.Ht Disordered structures
79.60.Jv Interfaces; heterostructures; nanostructures
79.70.+q Field emission, ionization, evaporation, and desorption
79.75.+g Exoelectron emission
79.77.+g Coulomb explosion (see also 34.35.+a Interactions of atoms and molecules with surfaces)
79.90.+b Other topics in electron and ion emission by liquids and solids and impact phenomena (restricted to new topics in section 79)


Please note that the AIP Thesaurus has replaced PACS  as an aid in indexing and retrieving scientific information. PACS® 2010  is the final version.