PACS Reg60

PACS 2010 Regular Edition—Sec. 60

61. Structure of solids and liquids; crystallography (for surface, interface, and thin film structure, see section 68)
61.05.-a Techniques for structure determination
... ... ... Microscopy of surfaces, interfaces, and thin films, see 68.37.-d
61.05.C- X-ray diffraction and scattering (for x-ray diffractometers, see 07.85.Jy; for x-ray studies of crystal defects, see 61.72.Dd, Ff) Theories of x-ray diffraction and scattering X-ray scattering (including small-angle scattering)
61.05.cj X-ray absorption spectroscopy: EXAFS, NEXAFS, XANES, etc. (for x-ray and EXAFS applications in biological physics, see 87.64.kd) X-ray reflectometry (surfaces, interfaces, films)
61.05.cp X-ray diffraction
61.05.F- Neutron diffraction and scattering
61.05.fd Theories of neutron diffraction and scattering
61.05.fg Neutron scattering (including small-angle scattering) Neutron reflectometry Neutron diffraction
... ... ... Microscopy of surfaces, interfaces, and thin films, see 68.37.-d
61.05.J- Electron diffraction and scattering (for electron diffractometers, see 07.78.+s)
61.05.jd Theories of electron diffraction and scattering
61.05.jh Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) and reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) Convergent-beam electron diffraction, selected-area electron diffraction, nanodiffraction Electron holography
61.05.js X-ray photoelectron diffraction
61.05.Np Atom, molecule, and ion scattering (for structure determination only)
61.05.Qr Magnetic resonance techniques; Mössbauer spectroscopy (for structure determination only)
61.05.Tv Neutron imaging; neutron tomography
61.20.-p Structure of liquids
61.20.Gy Theory and models of liquid structure
61.20.Ja Computer simulation of liquid structure
61.20.Lc Time-dependent properties; relaxation (for glass transitions, see 64.70.P-)
61.20.Ne Structure of simple liquids
61.20.Qg Structure of associated liquids: electrolytes, molten salts, etc.
61.25.-f Studies of specific liquid structures
61.25.Bi Liquid noble gases
61.25.Em Molecular liquids
61.25.H- Macromolecular and polymers solutions; polymer melts
61.25.he Polymer solutions Polymer melts and blends
61.25.hp Polymer swelling, cross linking
61.25.Mv Liquid metals and alloys
61.30.-v Liquid crystals (for phase transitions in liquid crystals, see 64.70.M-; for liquid crystals as dielectric materials, see 77.84.Nh; for liquid crystals as optical materials, see 42.70.Df; for liquid crystal devices, see 42.79.Kr)
61.30.Cz Molecular and microscopic models and theories of liquid crystal structure
61.30.Dk Continuum models and theories of liquid crystal structure
61.30.Eb Experimental determinations of smectic, nematic, cholesteric, and other structures
61.30.Gd Orientational order of liquid crystals; electric and magnetic field effects on order
61.30.Hn Surface phenomena: alignment, anchoring, anchoring transitions, surface-induced layering, surface-induced ordering, wetting, prewetting transitions, and wetting transitions
61.30.Jf Defects in liquid crystals
61.30.Mp Blue phases and other defect-phases
61.30.Pq Microconfined liquid crystals: droplets, cylinders, randomly confined liquid crystals, polymer dispersed liquid crystals, and porous systems
61.30.St Lyotropic phases
61.30.Vx Polymer liquid crystals
61.41.+e Polymers, elastomers, and plastics (see also 81.05.Lg in materials science; for rheology of polymers, see section 83; for polymer reactions and polymerization, see 82.35.-x in physical chemistry and chemical physics)
61.43.-j Disordered solids (see also 81.05.Gc Amorphous semiconductors, 81.05.Kf Glasses, and 81.05.Rm Porous materials; granular materials in materials science; for photoluminescence of disordered solids, see 78.55.Mb and 78.55.Qr)
61.43.Bn Structural modeling: serial-addition models, computer simulation
61.43.Dq Amorphous semiconductors, metals, and alloys
61.43.Er Other amorphous solids
61.43.Fs Glasses
61.43.Gt Powders, porous materials
61.43.Hv Fractals; macroscopic aggregates (including diffusion-limited aggregates)
61.44.-n Semi-periodic solids
61.44.Br Quasicrystals
61.44.Fw Incommensurate crystals
61.46.-w Structure of nanoscale materials (for thermal properties of nanocrystals and nanotubes, see 65.80.-g; for mechanical properties of nanoscale systems, see 62.25.-g; for electronic transport in nanoscale materials, see 73.63.-b; see also 62.23.-c Structural classes of nanoscale systems; 64.70.Nd Structural transitions in nanoscale materials; for magnetic properties of nanostructures, see 75.75.-c)
61.46.Bc Structure of clusters (e.g., metcars; not fragments of crystals; free or loosely aggregated or loosely attached to a substrate) (see also 61.48.-c for structure of fullerenes)
61.46.Df Structure of nanocrystals and nanoparticles ("colloidal" quantum dots but not gate-isolated embedded quantum dots)
61.46.Fg Nanotubes
61.46.Hk Nanocrystals
61.46.Km Structure of nanowires and nanorods (long, free or loosely attached, quantum wires and quantum rods, but not gate-isolated embedded quantum wires)
61.46.Np Structure of nanotubes (hollow nanowires) (see 61.48.De for carbon nanotubes, boron nanotubes, and other related systems)
61.48.-c Structure of fullerenes and related hollow and planar molecular structures (see also 81.05.ub Fullerenes and related materials in materials science)
61.48.De Structure of carbon nanotubes, boron nanotubes, and other related systems (for structure of hollow nanowires, see 61.46.Np)
61.48.Gh Structure of graphene
61.50.-f Structure of bulk crystals
61.50.Ah Theory of crystal structure, crystal symmetry; calculations and modeling
... ... ... Crystal growth, see 81.10.-h
61.50.Ks Crystallographic aspects of phase transformations; pressure effects (see also 81.30.Hd in materials science)
61.50.Lt Crystal binding; cohesive energy
61.50.Nw Crystal stoichiometry
61.66.-f Structure of specific crystalline solids (for surface structure, see 68.35.B-)
61.66.Bi Elemental solids
61.66.Dk Alloys
61.66.Fn Inorganic compounds
61.66.Hq Organic compounds
... ... ... Quantum crystals, see 67.80.-s
61.68.+n Crystallographic databases
61.72.-y Defects and impurities in crystals; microstructure (for radiation induced defects, see 61.80.-x; for defects in surfaces, interfaces, and thin films, see 68.35.Dv and 68.55.Ln; see also 85.40.Ry Impurity doping, diffusion, and ion implantation technology; for effects of crystal defects and doping on superconducting transition temperature, see 74.62.Dh)
61.72.Bb Theories and models of crystal defects
61.72.Cc Kinetics of defect formation and annealing
61.72.Dd Experimental determination of defects by diffraction and scattering
61.72.Ff Direct observation of dislocations and other defects (etch pits, decoration, electron microscopy, x-ray topography, etc.)
61.72.Hh Indirect evidence of dislocations and other defects (resistivity, slip, creep, strains, internal friction, EPR, NMR, etc.)
61.72.J- Point defects and defect clusters
61.72.jd Vacancies
61.72.jj Interstitials
61.72.jn Color centers
61.72.Lk Linear defects: dislocations, disclinations
61.72.Mm Grain and twin boundaries
61.72.Nn Stacking faults and other planar or extended defects
61.72.Qq Microscopic defects (voids, inclusions, etc.)
61.72.S- Impurities in crystals Impurity concentration Impurity distribution Impurity gradients
61.72.U- Doping and impurity implantation
61.72.uf Ge and Si
61.72.uj III-V and II-VI semiconductors
61.72.up Other materials
61.72.Yx Interaction between different crystal defects; gettering effect (for magnetic impurity interactions, see 75.30.Hx)
61.80.-x Physical radiation effects, radiation damage (for photochemical reactions, see 82.50.-m; for effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, see 87.53.-j)
... ... ... Radiation treatments, see 81.40.Wx
61.80.Az Theory and models of radiation effects
61.80.Ba Ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation effects (including laser radiation)
61.80.Cb X-ray effects
61.80.Ed γ-ray effects
61.80.Fe Electron and positron radiation effects
61.80.Hg Neutron radiation effects
61.80.Jh Ion radiation effects (for ion implantation, see 61.72.U-)
61.80.Lj Atom and molecule irradiation effects
... ... ... Channeling, blocking, and energy loss of particles, see 61.85.+p
61.82.-d Radiation effects on specific materials
61.82.Bg Metals and alloys
61.82.Fk Semiconductors
61.82.Ms Insulators
61.82.Pv Polymers, organic compounds
61.82.Rx Nanocrystalline materials
61.85.+p Channeling phenomena (blocking, energy loss, etc.)
61.90.+d Other topics in structure of solids and liquids; crystallography (restricted to new topics in section 61)
62. Mechanical and acoustical properties of condensed matter (for mechanical properties of tissues and organs, see 87.19.R-; for mechanical properties of nanoscale systems, see 62.25.-g; for nonlinear acoustics of solids, see 43.25.Dc—in Acoustics Appendix; for mechanical and acoustical properties of interfaces and thin films, see 68.35.Gy, 68.35.Iv, and 68.60.Bs; for mechanical properties related to treatment conditions, see 81.40.Jj, Lm, Np—in materials science; for mechanical and acoustical properties of superconductors, see 74.25.Ld; for mechanical and acoustical properties of rocks and minerals, see 91.60.Ba, Dc, and Lj)
62.10.+s Mechanical properties of liquids (for viscosity of liquids, see 66.20.-d)
62.20.-x Mechanical properties of solids
62.20.D- Elasticity (for materials treatment effects on elastic properties, see 81.40.Jj) Elastic moduli Poisson's ratio
62.20.dq Other elastic constants
62.20.F- Deformation and plasticity (see also 83.50.-v Deformation and flow in rheology; for materials treatment effects on deformation, see 81.40.Lm)
62.20.fg Shape-memory effect; yield stress; superelasticity Ductility, malleability
62.20.fq Plasticity and superplasticity
62.20.Hg Creep
62.20.M- Structural failure of materials (for materials treatment effects on microstructure, see 81.40.Np) Fatigue
62.20.mj Brittleness Fracture Buckling Cracks
62.20.Qp Friction, tribology, and hardness (see also 46.55.+d Tribology and mechanical contacts in continuum mechanics of solids; for materials treatment effects on friction related properties, see 81.40.Pq)
62.23.-c Structural classes of nanoscale systems (see also 81.07.-b Nanoscale materials and structures: fabrication and characterization in materials science)
62.23.Eg Nanodots
62.23.Hj Nanowires
62.23.Kn Nanosheets
62.23.Pq Composites (nanosystems embedded in a larger structure)
62.23.St Complex nanostructures, including patterned or assembled structures
62.25.-g Mechanical properties of nanoscale systems (for structure of nanoscale systems, see 61.46.-w; for structural transitions in nanoscale materials, see 64.70.Nd; for electronic transport in nanoscale systems, see 73.63.-b)
62.25.De Low-frequency properties: response coefficients
62.25.Fg High-frequency properties, responses to resonant or transient (time-dependent) fields
62.25.Jk Mechanical modes of vibration
62.25.Mn Fracture/brittleness
62.30.+d Mechanical and elastic waves; vibrations (see also 43.40.+s Structural acoustics and vibration; 46.40.-f Vibrations and mechanical waves in continuum mechanics of solids)
62.40.+i Anelasticity, internal friction, stress relaxation, and mechanical resonances (for materials treatment effects on anelasticity, see 81.40.Jj in materials science)
... ... ... Thermomechanical effects, see 65.40.De
... ... ... Magnetomechanical effects, see 75.80.+q
... ... ... Piezoelectric effects, see 77.65.-j
... ... ... Elastooptical effects, see 78.20.hb
62.50.-p High-pressure effects in solids and liquids (for high pressure apparatus and techniques, see 07.35.+k; for high-pressure behavior of rocks and minerals, see 91.60.Gf; for pressure treatments, see 81.40.Vw in materials science; for effects of pressure on superconducting transition temperature, see 74.62.Fj)
62.50.Ef Shock wave effects in solids and liquids (for shock wave initiated high-pressure chemistry, see 82.40.Fp; see also 47.40.Nm Shock wave interactions and shock effects in fluid dynamics)
62.60.+v Acoustical properties of liquids (see also 43.35.+d in acoustics; 87.50.Y- Biological effects of acoustic and ultrasonic energy in biological and medical physics)
... ... ... Lattice dynamics, phonons, see section 63
... ... ... Sound waves in fluid dynamics, see 47.35.Rs
... ... ... Second sound in quantum fluids, see 67.25.dt
62.65.+k Acoustical properties of solids
... ... ... Magnetoacoustic effects, see 72.55.+s and 73.50.Rb
... ... ... Acoustoelectric effects, see 72.50.+b, 73.50.Rb, and 77.65.Dq
... ... ... Acoustooptical effects, see 78.20.hb
62.80.+f Ultrasonic relaxation (see also 43.35.Fj Ultrasonic relaxation processes in liquids and solids—in Acoustics Appendix; for ultrasonic attenuation in superconductors, see 74.25.Ld)
62.90.+k Other topics in mechanical and acoustical properties of condensed matter (restricted to new topics in section 62)
63. Lattice dynamics (see also 78.30.-j Infrared and Raman spectra; for surface and interface vibrations, see 68.35.Ja; for adsorbate vibrations, see 68.43.Pq; for lattice dynamics of quantum solids, see
63.10.+a General theory
63.20.-e Phonons in crystal lattices (for phonons in superconductors, see 74.25.Kc; see also 43.35.Gk Phonons in crystal lattice, quantum acoustics—in Acoustics Appendix)
63.20.D- Phonon states and bands, normal modes, and phonon dispersion
63.20.dd Measurements
63.20.dh Fitted theory First-principles theory
63.20.K- Phonon interactions
63.20.kd Phonon-electron interactions Phonon-phonon interactions
63.20.kk Phonon interactions with other quasiparticles Phonon-defect interactions
63.20.Pw Localized modes
63.20.Ry Anharmonic lattice modes
63.22.-m Phonons or vibrational states in low-dimensional structures and nanoscale materials
63.22.Dc Free films
63.22.Gh Nanotubes and nanowires
63.22.Kn Clusters and nanocrystals
63.22.Np Layered systems
63.22.Rc Phonons in graphene
63.50.-x Vibrational states in disordered systems
63.50.Gh Disordered crystalline alloys
63.50.Lm Glasses and amorphous solids
63.70.+h Statistical mechanics of lattice vibrations and displacive phase transitions
63.90.+t Other topics in lattice dynamics (restricted to new topics in section 63)
64. Equations of state, phase equilibria, and phase transitions (see also 82.60.-s Chemical thermodynamics)
64.10.+h General theory of equations of state and phase equilibria (see also 05.70.Ce Thermodynamic functions and equations of state)
64.30.-t Equations of state of specific substances
64.30.Ef Equations of state of pure metals and alloys
64.30.Jk Equations of state of nonmetals
64.60.-i General studies of phase transitions (see also 63.70.+h Statistical mechanics of lattice vibrations and displacive phase transitions; for critical phenomena in solid surfaces and interfaces, and in magnetism, see 68.35.Rh, and 75.40.-s, respectively)
64.60.A- Specific approaches applied to studies of phase transitions Renormalization-group theory
64.60.ah Percolation Fractal and multifractal systems (see also 61.43.Hv Fractals; macroscopic aggregates) Finite-size systems Networks Convolution
64.60.av Cracks, sandpiles, avalanches, and earthquakes (for general studies of sandpiles and avalanches, see 45.70.Cc, Ht in classical mechanics of discrete systems; see also 91.30.Px Earthquakes in geophysics)
64.60.Bd General theory of phase transitions
64.60.Cn Order-disorder transformations (see also 81.30.Hd Constant-composition solid-solid phase transformations: polymorphic, massive, and order-disorder in materials science; for effects of disorder on superconducting transition temperature, see 74.62.En)
64.60.De Statistical mechanics of model systems (Ising model, Potts model, field-theory models, Monte Carlo techniques, etc.)
64.60.Ej Studies/theory of phase transitions of specific substances (for phase transitions in ferroelectric and antiferroelectric materials, see 77.80.B-)
64.60.F- Equilibrium properties near critical points, critical exponents
64.60.fd General theory of critical region behavior
64.60.fh Studies of specific substances in the critical region
... ... ... Properties of quantum fluids, see section 67
64.60.Ht Dynamic critical phenomena (for quantum critical phenomena in superconductivity, see 74.40.Kb)
64.60.Kw Multicritical points
64.60.My Metastable phases
64.60.Q- Nucleation (see also 82.60.Nh Thermodynamics of nucleation in physical chemistry and chemical physics)
64.60.qe General theory and computer simulations of nucleation
64.60.qj Studies of nucleation in specific substances
64.70.-p Specific phase transitions
64.70.D- Solid-liquid transitions
64.70.dg Crystallization of specific substances Melting of specific substances General theory of the solid-liquid transition
64.70.F- Liquid-vapor transitions
64.70.fh Boiling and bubble dynamics (for bubble formation, bubble dynamics, boiling and cavitation, see section 47.55.D-; for acoustic cavitation, see 43.35.Ei in Acoustics Appendix) Thermodynamics studies of evaporation and condensation (for evaporation and condensation on surfaces, see 68.03.Fg)
64.70.Hz Solid-vapor transitions
64.70.Ja Liquid-liquid transitions
64.70.K- Solid-solid transitions (see also 61.50.Ks Crystallographic aspects of phase transformations; pressure effects; 75.30.Kz and 77.80.B- for magnetic and ferroelectric transitions, respectively; for materials science aspects, see 81.30.-t)
64.70.kd Metals and alloys Semiconductors
64.70.kj Glasses Polymers Ionic crystals
64.70.kt Molecular crystals
64.70.M- Transitions in liquid crystals Theory and modeling of specific liquid crystal transitions, including computer simulation
64.70.mj Experimental studies of liquid crystal transitions
64.70.Nd Structural transitions in nanoscale materials
64.70.P- Glass transitions of specific systems Metallic glasses Nonmetallic glasses (silicates, oxides, selenides, etc.)
64.70.pj Polymers Liquids
64.70.pp Liquid crystals (see also 64.70.M- Transitions in liquid crystals) Granules
64.70.pv Colloids
64.70.Q- Theory and modeling of the glass transition
64.70.qd Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics
64.70.qj Dynamics and criticality
64.70.Rh Commensurate-incommensurate transitions
64.70.Tg Quantum phase transitions (for quantum Hall effects aspects, see 73.43.Nq in electronic structure of surfaces, interfaces, thin films, and low dimensional structures)
64.75.-g Phase equilibria (see also 82.60.Lf Thermodynamics of solutions; 47.51.+a Mixing in fluid dynamics; for properties of solutions of biomolecules, see 87.15.N- in biological physics)
64.75.Bc Solubility
64.75.Cd Phase equilibria of fluid mixtures, including gases, hydrates, etc.
64.75.Ef Mixing
64.75.Gh Phase separation and segregation in model systems (hard spheres, Lennard-Jones, etc.)
64.75.Jk Phase separation and segregation in nanoscale systems (for general nanoscale materials studies, see 81.07.-b in materials science)
64.75.Lm Phase separation and segregation in oxidation (for general surface oxidation studies in surface treatments, see 81.65.Mq)
64.75.Nx Phase separation and segregation in solid solutions
64.75.Op Phase separation and segregation in alloying
64.75.Qr Phase separation and segregation in semiconductors
64.75.St Phase separation and segregation in thin films
64.75.Va Phase separation and segregation in polymer blends/polymeric solutions
64.75.Xc Phase separation and segregation in colloidal systems
64.75.Yz Self-assembly
64.90.+b Other topics in equations of state, phase equilibria, and phase transitions (restricted to new topics in section 64)
65. Thermal properties of condensed matter (see also section 44 Heat transfer; for thermodynamic properties of quantum fluids and solids, see section 67; for thermal properties of thin films, see 68.60.Dv; for nonelectronic thermal conduction, see 66.25.+g and 66.70.-f; for thermal properties of rocks and minerals, see 91.60.Ki; for thermodynamic properties of superconductors, see 74.25.Bt; see also 87.19.Pp Biothermics and thermal processes in biological physics)
65.20.-w Thermal properties of liquids
65.20.De General theory of thermodynamic properties of liquids, including computer simulation
65.20.Jk Studies of thermodynamic properties of specific liquids
65.40.-b Thermal properties of crystalline solids
65.40.Ba Heat capacity (for specific heat of magnetic materials, see 75.40.-s)
65.40.De Thermal expansion; thermomechanical effects
65.40.G- Other thermodynamical quantities (for magnetocaloric effect, see 75.30.Sg) Entropy Work functions
65.40.gk Electrochemical properties (for general electrochemistry, see 82.45.-h) Surface energy (see also 68.35.Md Surface thermodynamics, surface energies in surfaces and interfaces)
65.60.+a Thermal properties of amorphous solids and glasses: heat capacity, thermal expansion, etc.
65.80.-g Thermal properties of small particles, nanocrystals, nanotubes, and other related systems
65.80.Ck Thermal properties of graphene
65.90.+i Other topics in thermal properties of condensed matter (restricted to new topics in section 65)
66. Nonelectronic transport properties of condensed matter
66.10.-x Diffusion and ionic conduction in liquids
66.10.C- Diffusion and thermal diffusion (for osmosis in biological systems, see 82.39.Wj in physical chemistry; for cellular transport, see 87.16.dp and 87.16.Uv in biological physics) Thermal diffusion and diffusive energy transport Mass diffusion, including self-diffusion, mutual diffusion, tracer diffusion, etc.
66.10.Ed Ionic conduction
66.20.-d Viscosity of liquids; diffusive momentum transport
66.20.Cy Theory and modeling of viscosity and rheological properties, including computer simulation
66.20.Ej Studies of viscosity and rheological properties of specific liquids
66.20.Gd Diffusive momentum transport
66.25.+g Thermal conduction in nonmetallic liquids (for thermal conduction in liquid metals, see 72.15.Cz)
66.30.-h Diffusion in solids (for surface and interface diffusion, see 68.35.Fx)
66.30.Dn Theory of diffusion and ionic conduction in solids
66.30.Fq Self-diffusion in metals, semimetals, and alloys
66.30.H- Self-diffusion and ionic conduction in nonmetals
66.30.hd Ionic crystals
66.30.hh Glasses Polymers
66.30.hp Molecular crystals
66.30.J- Diffusion of impurities (for surface diffusion, hopping, sorption, etc., see 68.35.Fx; see section 72 for carrier diffusion and electron-hole diffusion) Diffusion of gases
66.30.jj Diffusion of water Proton diffusion
66.30.Lw Diffusion of other defects
66.30.Ma Diffusion in quantum solids (supersolidity) (see also Defects, impurities, and diffusion in quantum fluids and solids)
66.30.Ny Chemical interdiffusion; diffusion barriers
66.30.Pa Diffusion in nanoscale solids
66.30.Qa Electromigration
66.30.Xj Thermal diffusivity
66.35.+a Quantum tunneling of defects
66.70.-f Nonelectronic thermal conduction and heat-pulse propagation in solids; thermal waves (for electronic thermal conduction in metals and alloys, see 72.15.Cz and 72.15.Eb)
66.70.Df Metals, alloys, and semiconductors
66.70.Hk Glasses and polymers
66.70.Lm Other systems such as ionic crystals, molecular crystals, nanotubes, etc.
66.90.+r Other topics in nonelectronic transport properties of condensed matter (restricted to new topics in section 66)
67. Quantum fluids and solids (see also 05.30.-d Quantum statistical mechanics; for cryogenics, refrigerators, low-temperature detectors, and other low-temperature equipment, see 07.20.Mc; see also 47.37.+q Hydrodynamic aspects of superfluidity; quantum fluids—in fluid dynamics)
67.10.-j Quantum fluids: general properties
67.10.Ba Boson degeneracy (for ultracold, trapped gases, see 67.85.-d)
67.10.Db Fermion degeneracy
67.10.Fj Quantum statistical theory
67.10.Hk Quantum effects on the structure and dynamics of non-degenerate fluids
67.10.Jn Transport properties and hydrodynamics
67.25.-k 4He
67.25.B- Normal phase of 4He Thermodynamic properties Transport, hydrodynamics Films and restricted geometries
67.25.D- Superfluid phase Thermodynamic properties
67.25.dg Transport, hydrodynamics, and superflow Superfluid transition and critical phenomena Vortices and turbulence Two-fluid model; phenomenology
67.25.dp Films
67.25.dr Restricted geometries
67.25.dt Sound and excitations
67.25.du Relaxation phenomena
67.25.dw Superfluidity in small clusters
67.30.-n 3He
67.30.E- Normal phase of 3He
67.30.ef Thermodynamics Transport and hydrodynamics
67.30.ej Films and restricted geometries
67.30.em Excitations
67.30.ep Spin polarized 3He Magnetic properties, NMR
67.30.H- Superfluid phase of 3He
67.30.hb Transport, hydrodynamics, and superflow
67.30.he Textures and vortices
67.30.hj Spin dynamics Impurities
67.30.hp Interfaces Films Restricted geometries
67.60.-g Mixtures of 3He and 4He
67.60.Bc Boson mixtures
67.60.Fp Bose-Fermi mixtures
67.60.G- Solutions of 3He in liquid 4He
67.60.gc Spin polarized solutions Films
67.60.gj Restricted geometries
67.63.-r Hydrogen and isotopes
67.63.Cd Molecular hydrogen and isotopes
67.63.Gh Atomic hydrogen and isotopes
67.80.-s Quantum solids
67.80.B- Solid 4He Superfluidity in solid 4He, supersolid 4He Liquid-solid interfaces; growth kinetics
67.80.D- Solid 3He Structure, lattice dynamics and sound Defects, impurities, and diffusion Magnetic properties, phases, and NMR Films
67.80.F- Solids of hydrogen and isotopes
67.80.ff Molecular hydrogen and isotopes
67.80.fh Atomic hydrogen and isotopes
67.80.K- Other supersolids
67.80.kb Supersolid phases on lattices
67.85.-d Ultracold gases, trapped gases (see also 03.75.-b Matter waves in quantum mechanics)
67.85.Bc Static properties of condensates
67.85.De Dynamic properties of condensates; excitations, and superfluid flow
67.85.Fg Multicomponent condensates; spinor condensates
67.85.Hj Bose-Einstein condensates in optical potentials
67.85.Jk Other Bose-Einstein condensation phenomena
67.85.Lm Degenerate Fermi gases
67.85.Pq Mixtures of Bose and Fermi gases
67.90.+z Other topics in quantum fluids and solids (restricted to new topics in section 67)
68. Surfaces and interfaces; thin films and nanosystems (structure and nonelectronic properties) (for surface and interface chemistry, see 82.65.+r, for surface magnetism, see 75.70.Rf)
68.03.-g Gas-liquid and vacuum-liquid interfaces
68.03.Cd Surface tension and related phenomena
68.03.Fg Evaporation and condensation of liquids
68.03.Hj Liquid surface structure: measurements and simulations
68.03.Kn Dynamics (capillary waves)
68.05.-n Liquid-liquid interfaces
68.05.Cf Liquid-liquid interface structure: measurements and simulations
68.05.Gh Interfacial properties of microemulsions
68.08.-p Liquid-solid interfaces
68.08.Bc Wetting
68.08.De Liquid-solid interface structure: measurements and simulations (for crystal growth from solutions and melts, see 81.10.Dn, Fq in materials science)
68.15.+e Liquid thin films
68.18.-g Langmuir-Blodgett films on liquids (for L-B films on solids, see 68.47.Pe)
68.18.Fg Liquid thin film structure: measurements and simulations
68.18.Jk Phase transitions in liquid thin films
68.35.-p Solid surfaces and solid-solid interfaces: structure and energetics
68.35.Af Atomic scale friction
68.35.B- Structure of clean surfaces (and surface reconstruction) Metals and alloys Semiconductors Amorphous semiconductors, glasses Polymers, organics
68.35.bp Fullerenes Other materials
68.35.Ct Interface structure and roughness
68.35.Dv Composition, segregation; defects and impurities
68.35.Fx Diffusion; interface formation (see also 66.30.-h Diffusion in solids, for diffusion of adsorbates, see 68.43.Jk)
68.35.Gy Mechanical properties; surface strains (for strain induced piezoelectric fields, see 77.65.Ly; for strain effects on ferroelectric phase transitions, see
68.35.Iv Acoustical properties
68.35.Ja Surface and interface dynamics and vibrations
... ... ... Solid-solid interfaces: transport and optical properties, see 73.40.-c and 78.20.-e respectively
68.35.Md Surface thermodynamics, surface energies (see also 05.70.Np Interface and surface thermodynamics in statistical physics, thermodynamics and nonlinear dynamical systems; Surface energy in thermal properties of condensed matter)
68.35.Np Adhesion (for polymer adhesion, see 82.35.Gh: for cell adhesion, see 87.17.Rt in biological physics)
68.35.Rh Phase transitions and critical phenomena
68.37.-d Microscopy of surfaces, interfaces, and thin films
68.37.Ef Scanning tunneling microscopy (including chemistry induced with STM)
68.37.Hk Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (including EBIC)
68.37.Lp Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)
68.37.Ma Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM)
68.37.Nq Low energy electron microscopy (LEEM)
68.37.Og High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM)
68.37.Ps Atomic force microscopy (AFM)
68.37.Rt Magnetic force microscopy (MFM)
68.37.Tj Acoustic force microscopy
68.37.Uv Near-field scanning microscopy and spectroscopy
68.37.Vj Field emission and field-ion microscopy
68.37.Xy Scanning Auger microscopy, photoelectron microscopy
68.37.Yz X-ray microscopy
68.43.-h Chemisorption/physisorption: adsorbates on surfaces
68.43.Bc Ab initio calculations of adsorbate structure and reactions (for electronic structure of adsorbates, see 73.20.Hb; for adsorbate reactions, see also 82.65.+r Surface and interface chemistry; heterogeneous catalysis at surfaces)
68.43.De Statistical mechanics of adsorbates
68.43.Fg Adsorbate structure (binding sites, geometry)
68.43.Hn Structure of assemblies of adsorbates (two- and three-dimensional clustering)
68.43.Jk Diffusion of adsorbates, kinetics of coarsening and aggregation
68.43.Mn Adsorption kinetics
68.43.Nr Desorption kinetics
68.43.Pq Adsorbate vibrations
68.43.Rs Electron stimulated desorption (see also 79.20.La Photon- and electron-stimulated desorption)
68.43.Tj Photon stimulated desorption (see also 79.20.La Photon- and electron-stimulated desorption)
68.43.Vx Thermal desorption
68.47.-b Solid-gas/vacuum interfaces: types of surfaces
68.47.De Metallic surfaces
68.47.Fg Semiconductor surfaces
68.47.Gh Oxide surfaces
68.47.Jn Clusters on oxide surfaces
68.47.Mn Polymer surfaces
68.47.Pe Langmuir-Blodgett films on solids; polymers on surfaces; biological molecules on surfaces
68.49.-h Surface characterization by particle-surface scattering (see also 34.35.+a Interactions of atoms and molecules with surfaces)
68.49.Bc Atom scattering from surfaces (diffraction and energy transfer)
68.49.Df Molecule scattering from surfaces (energy transfer, resonances, trapping)
68.49.Jk Electron scattering from surfaces
68.49.Sf Ion scattering from surfaces (charge transfer, sputtering, SIMS)
68.49.Uv X-ray standing waves
68.55.-a Thin film structure and morphology (for methods of thin film deposition, film growth and epitaxy, see 81.15.-z)
68.55.A- Nucleation and growth Semiconductors
68.55.aj Insulators Polymers and organics
68.55.ap Fullerenes Other materials
68.55.J- Morphology of films
68.55.jd Thickness Texture
68.55.Ln Defects and impurities: doping, implantation, distribution, concentration, etc. (for diffusion of impurities, see 66.30.J-)
68.55.Nq Composition and phase identification
68.60.-p Physical properties of thin films, nonelectronic
68.60.Bs Mechanical and acoustical properties
68.60.Dv Thermal stability; thermal effects
68.60.Wm Other nonelectronic physical properties
68.65.-k Low-dimensional, mesoscopic, nanoscale and other related systems: structure and nonelectronic properties (for structure of nanoscale materials, see 61.46.-w; for magnetic properties of interfaces, see 75.70.Cn; for superconducting properties, see 74.78.-w; for optical properties, see 78.67.-n; for transport properties, see 73.63.-b; for thermal properties of nanocrystals and nanotubes, see 65.80.-g; for mechanical properties of nanoscale systems, see 62.25.-g)
... ... ... Growth of low-dimensional structures, see 81.16.-c
68.65.Ac Multilayers
68.65.Cd Superlattices
68.65.Fg Quantum wells
68.65.Hb Quantum dots (patterned in quantum wells)
68.65.La Quantum wires (patterned in quantum wells)
68.65.Pq Graphene films
68.70.+w Whiskers and dendrites (growth, structure, and nonelectronic properties)
68.90.+g Other topics in structure, and nonelectronic properties of surfaces and interfaces; thin films and low-dimensional structures (restricted to new topics in section 68)


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