PACS Reg40

PACS 2010 Regular Edition—Sec. 40

41. Electromagnetism; electron and ion optics
41.20.-q Applied classical electromagnetism (for submillimeter wave, microwave, and radiowave instruments and equipment, see 07.57.-c)
41.20.Cv Electrostatics; Poisson and Laplace equations, boundary-value problems
41.20.Gz Magnetostatics; magnetic shielding, magnetic induction, boundary-value problems
41.20.Jb Electromagnetic wave propagation; radiowave propagation (for light propagation, see 42.25.Bs; for electromagnetic waves in plasma, see 52.35.Hr; for atmospheric, ionospheric, and magnetospheric propagation, see 92.60.Ta, 94.20.Bb, and 94.30.Tz, respectively; see also 94.05.Pt Wave/wave, wave/particle interactions, in space plasma physics)
41.50.+h X-ray beams and x-ray optics (see also 07.85.Fv X- and γ-ray sources, mirrors, gratings, and detectors in instruments)
41.60.-m Radiation by moving charges
41.60.Ap Synchrotron radiation (for synchrotron radiation instrumentation, see 07.85.Qe)
41.60.Bq Cherenkov radiation
41.60.Cr Free-electron lasers (see also 52.59.Rz Free-electron devices—in plasma physics)
41.60.Dk Transition radiation
41.75.-i Charged-particle beams
41.75.Ak Positive-ion beams
41.75.Cn Negative-ion beams
41.75.Fr Electron and positron beams
41.75.Ht Relativistic electron and positron beams
41.75.Jv Laser-driven acceleration (see also 52.38.-r Laser-plasma interactions in plasma physics)
41.75.Lx Other advanced accelerator concepts
41.85.-p Beam optics (see also 07.77.Ka Charged-particle beam sources and detectors in instruments; 29.27.-a Beams in particle accelerators)
41.85.Ar Particle beam extraction, beam injection
41.85.Ct Particle beam shaping, beam splitting
41.85.Ew Particle beam profile, beam intensity
41.85.Gy Chromatic and geometrical aberrations
41.85.Ja Particle beam transport
41.85.Lc Particle beam focusing and bending magnets, wiggler magnets, and quadrupoles (see also 07.55.Db Generation of magnetic fields; magnets in instruments; for superconducting magnets, see 84.71.Ba)
41.85.Ne Electrostatic lenses, septa
41.85.Qg Particle beam analyzers, beam monitors, and Faraday cups
41.85.Si Particle beam collimators, monochromators
41.90.+e Other topics in electromagnetism; electron and ion optics (restricted to new topics in section 41)
42. Optics (for optical properties of gases, see 51.70.+f; for optical properties of bulk materials and thin films, see 78.20.-e; for x-ray optics, see 41.50.+h)
42.15.-i Geometrical optics
42.15.Dp Wave fronts and ray tracing
42.15.Eq Optical system design
42.15.Fr Aberrations
42.25.-p Wave optics
42.25.Bs Wave propagation, transmission and absorption [see also 41.20.Jb—in electromagnetism; for propagation in atmosphere, see 42.68.Ay; see also 52.40.Db Electromagnetic (nonlaser) radiation interactions with plasma and 52.38-r Laser-plasma interactions—in plasma physics]
42.25.Dd Wave propagation in random media
42.25.Fx Diffraction and scattering
42.25.Gy Edge and boundary effects; reflection and refraction
42.25.Hz Interference
42.25.Ja Polarization
42.25.Kb Coherence
42.25.Lc Birefringence
42.30.-d Imaging and optical processing
42.30.Kq Fourier optics
42.30.Lr Modulation and optical transfer functions
42.30.Ms Speckle and moiré patterns
42.30.Rx Phase retrieval
42.30.Sy Pattern recognition
42.30.Tz Computer vision; robotic vision
42.30.Va Image forming and processing
42.30.Wb Image reconstruction; tomography
42.40.-i Holography
42.40.Eq Holographic optical elements; holographic gratings
42.40.Ht Hologram recording and readout methods (see also 42.70.Ln Holographic recording materials; optical storage media)
42.40.Jv Computer-generated holograms
42.40.Kw Holographic interferometry; other holographic techniques (for interferometers, see 07.60.Ly in instruments)
42.40.Lx Diffraction efficiency, resolution, and other hologram characteristics
42.40.My Applications
42.40.Pa Volume holograms
42.50.-p Quantum optics (for lasers, see 42.55.-f and 42.60.-v; see also 42.65.-k Nonlinear optics; 03.65.-w Quantum mechanics)
42.50.Ar Photon statistics and coherence theory
42.50.Ct Quantum description of interaction of light and matter; related experiments
42.50.Dv Quantum state engineering and measurements (see also 03.65.Ud Entanglement and quantum nonlocality, e.g., EPR paradox, Bells inequalities, GHZ states, etc.)
42.50.Ex Optical implementations of quantum information processing and transfer
42.50.Gy Effects of atomic coherence on propagation, absorption, and amplification of light; electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption
42.50.Hz Strong-field excitation of optical transitions in quantum systems; multiphoton processes; dynamic Stark shift (for multiphoton ionization and excitation of atoms and molecules, see 32.80.Rm, and 33.80.Rv, respectively)
42.50.Lc Quantum fluctuations, quantum noise, and quantum jumps
42.50.Md Optical transient phenomena: quantum beats, photon echo, free-induction decay, dephasings and revivals, optical nutation, and self-induced transparency
... ... ... Dynamics of nonlinear optical systems; optical instabilities, optical chaos, and optical spatio-temporal dynamics, see 42.65.Sf
... ... ... Optical solitons; nonlinear guided waves, see 42.65.Tg
42.50.Nn Quantum optical phenomena in absorbing, amplifying, dispersive and conducting media; cooperative phenomena in quantum optical systems
42.50.Pq Cavity quantum electrodynamics; micromasers
42.50.St Nonclassical interferometry, subwavelength lithography
42.50.Tx Optical angular momentum and its quantum aspects (see also 42.25.Ja Polarization)
... ... ... Mechanical effects of light on atoms, molecules, and ions, see 37.10.Vz
42.50.Wk Mechanical effects of light on material media, microstructures and particles (see also 87.80.Cc Optical trapping in biology and medicine)
... ... ... Experimental tests in quantum electrodynamics, see 12.20.Fv
... ... ... Measurements theory in quantum mechanics, see 03.65.Ta
42.50.Xa Optical tests of quantum theory
42.55.-f Lasers
42.55.Ah General laser theory
42.55.Ks Chemical lasers (for chemiluminescence, see 78.60.Ps)
42.55.Lt Gas lasers including excimer and metal-vapor lasers
42.55.Mv Dye lasers
42.55.Px Semiconductor lasers; laser diodes
42.55.Rz Doped-insulator lasers and other solid state lasers
42.55.Sa Microcavity and microdisk lasers
42.55.Tv Photonic crystal lasers and coherent effects
42.55.Vc X- and γ-ray lasers
42.55.Wd Fiber lasers
42.55.Xi Diode-pumped lasers
42.55.Ye Raman lasers (see also 42.65.Dr Stimulated Raman scattering; CARS)
... ... ... Free-electron lasers, see 41.60.Cr and 52.59.Rz
42.55.Zz Random lasers
42.60.-v Laser optical systems: design and operation
42.60.By Design of specific laser systems
42.60.Da Resonators, cavities, amplifiers, arrays, and rings
42.60.Fc Modulation, tuning, and mode locking
42.60.Gd Q-switching
42.60.Jf Beam characteristics: profile, intensity, and power; spatial pattern formation
42.60.Lh Efficiency, stability, gain, and other operational parameters
42.60.Mi Dynamical laser instabilities; noisy laser behavior
42.60.Pk Continuous operation
42.60.Rn Relaxation oscillations and long pulse operation
... ... ... Ultrashort pulse generation, see 42.65.Re
... ... ... Dynamics of nonlinear optical systems, see 42.65.Sf
42.62.-b Laser applications
42.62.Be Biological and medical applications (see also 87.50.W-, 87.63.L-, and 87.80.Cc in biological and medical physics)
42.62.Cf Industrial applications
42.62.Eh Metrological applications; optical frequency synthesizers for precision spectroscopy (see also 06.20.-f Metrology in metrology, measurements, and laboratory procedures)
42.62.Fi Laser spectroscopy
42.65.-k Nonlinear optics
42.65.An Optical susceptibility, hyperpolarizability [see also 33.15.Kr Electric and magnetic moments (and derivatives), polarizability, and magnetic susceptibility]
42.65.Dr Stimulated Raman scattering; CARS (for Raman lasers, see 42.55.Ye)
42.65.Es Stimulated Brillouin and Rayleigh scattering
42.65.Hw Phase conjugation; photorefractive and Kerr effects
42.65.Jx Beam trapping, self-focusing and defocusing; self-phase modulation
42.65.Ky Frequency conversion; harmonic generation, including higher-order harmonic generation (see also 42.79.Nv Optical frequency converters)
42.65.Lm Parametric down conversion and production of entangled photons (see also 42.50.Dv Quantum state engineering and measurements; for optical parametric oscillators and amplifiers, see 42.65.Yj)
42.65.Pc Optical bistability, multistability, and switching, including local field effects (see also 42.60.Gd Q-switching; 42.79.Ta Optical computers, logic elements, interconnects, switches; neural networks)
42.65.Re Ultrafast processes; optical pulse generation and pulse compression (for ultrafast spectroscopy, see 78.47.J-; for ultrafast magnetization dynamics, see 75.78.Jp)
42.65.Sf Dynamics of nonlinear optical systems; optical instabilities, optical chaos and complexity, and optical spatio-temporal dynamics
42.65.Tg Optical solitons; nonlinear guided waves (for solitons in fibers, see 42.81.Dp)
42.65.Wi Nonlinear waveguides
42.65.Yj Optical parametric oscillators and amplifiers (see also 42.65.Lm Parametric down conversion and production of entangled photons)
42.66.-p Physiological optics (see also Sensory systems: visual, auditory, tactile, taste, and olfaction)
42.66.Ct Anatomy and optics of eye
42.66.Ew Physiology of eye; optic-nerve structure and function (see also Sensory systems: visual, auditory, tactile, taste, and olfaction)
42.66.Lc Vision: light detection, adaptation, and discrimination
42.66.Ne Color vision: color detection, adaptation, and discrimination
42.66.Qg Scales for light and color detection
42.66.Si Psychophysics of vision, visual perception; binocular vision
42.68.-w Atmospheric and ocean optics
42.68.Ay Propagation, transmission, attenuation, and radiative transfer (see also 92.60.Ta Electromagnetic wave propagation)
42.68.Bz Atmospheric turbulence effects (see also Convection, turbulence, and diffusion in meteorology)
42.68.Ca Spectral absorption by atmospheric gases (see also 92.60.Vb Radiative processes, solar radiation in meteorology)
42.68.Ge Effects of clouds and water; ice crystal phenomena (see also 92.60.Jq Water in the atmosphere; 92.60.Nv Cloud physics and chemistry in meteorology)
42.68.Jg Effects of aerosols (see also 92.60.Mt Particles and aerosols in meteorology; 92.20.Bk Aerosols in chemical and biological oceanography; 91.40.Dr Atmospheric effects in volcanology)
42.68.Kh Effects of air pollution (see also 92.60.Sz Air quality and air pollution in meteorology; 92.10.Xc Ocean fog in oceanography)
42.68.Mj Scattering, polarization (see also 92.60.Ta Electromagnetic wave propagation and 92.60.Vb Radiative processes, solar radiation in meteorology)
42.68.Sq Image transmission and formation
42.68.Wt Remote sensing; LIDAR and adaptive systems
42.68.Xy Ocean optics (see also 92.05.Hj Physical and chemical properties of sea water in oceanography)
42.70.-a Optical materials (see also 81.05.-t Specific materials: fabrication, treatment, testing and analysis)
42.70.Ce Glasses, quartz
42.70.Df Liquid crystals (for structure of liquid crystals, see 61.30.-v)
42.70.Gi Light-sensitive materials
42.70.Hj Laser materials
42.70.Jk Polymers and organics
42.70.Km Infrared transmitting materials
42.70.Ln Holographic recording materials; optical storage media
42.70.Mp Nonlinear optical crystals (see also 77.84.-s Dielectric, piezoelectric, and ferroelectric materials)
42.70.Nq Other nonlinear optical materials; photorefractive and semiconductor materials
42.70.Qs Photonic bandgap materials (for photonic crystal lasers, see 42.55.Tv)
42.72.-g Optical sources and standards (for lasers, see 42.55.-f)
42.72.Ai Infrared sources (see also 07.57.Hm Infrared, submillimeter wave, microwave, and radiowave sources)
42.72.Bj Visible and ultraviolet sources
42.79.-e Optical elements, devices, and systems (for integrated optics, see 42.82.-m; for fiber optics, see 42.81.-i)
... ... ... Optical instruments, equipment and techniques, see 07.60.-j and 07.57.-c
... ... ... Optical spectrometers, see 07.57.Ty and 07.60.Rd
... ... ... Photography, photographic instruments and techniques, see 07.68.+m
... ... ... Magnetooptical devices, see 85.70.Sq
42.79.Ag Apertures, collimators
42.79.Bh Lenses, prisms and mirrors
42.79.Ci Filters, zone plates, and polarizers
42.79.Dj Gratings (for holographic gratings, see 42.40.Eq)
42.79.Ek Solar collectors and concentrators (see also 88.40.F- Solar concentrators in solar energy)
42.79.Fm Reflectors, beam splitters, and deflectors
42.79.Gn Optical waveguides and couplers (for fiber waveguides and waveguides in integrated optics, see 42.81.Qb and 42.82.Et, respectively)
42.79.Hp Optical processors, correlators, and modulators
42.79.Jq Acousto-optical devices (see also 43.38.Zp—in Acoustics Appendix)
42.79.Kr Display devices, liquid-crystal devices (see also 85.60.Pg Display systems)
42.79.Ls Scanners, image intensifiers, and image converters (see also 85.60.-q Optoelectronic devices)
42.79.Mt Schlieren devices
42.79.Nv Optical frequency converters
42.79.Pw Imaging detectors and sensors (see also 85.60.Gz Photodetectors)
42.79.Qx Range finders, remote sensing devices; laser Doppler velocimeters, SAR, and LIDAR (see also 42.68.Wt Remote sensing; LIDAR and adaptive systems)
42.79.Ry Gradient-index (GRIN) devices (for fiber GRIN devices, see 42.81.Ht)
42.79.Sz Optical communication systems, multiplexers, and demultiplexers (for fiber networks, see 42.81.Uv)
42.79.Ta Optical computers, logic elements, interconnects, switches; neural networks
42.79.Vb Optical storage systems, optical disks (see also 42.40.Ht Hologram recording and readout methods)
42.79.Wc Optical coatings
42.81.-i Fiber optics
... ... ... Fiber-optic instruments, see 07.60.Vg
42.81.Bm Fabrication, cladding, and splicing
42.81.Cn Fiber testing and measurement of fiber parameters
42.81.Dp Propagation, scattering, and losses; solitons
42.81.Gs Birefringence, polarization
42.81.Ht Gradient-index (GRIN) fiber devices
42.81.Pa Sensors, gyros
42.81.Qb Fiber waveguides, couplers, and arrays
42.81.Uv Fiber networks (see also 42.79.Sz Optical communication systems, multiplexers, and demultiplexers)
42.81.Wg Other fiber-optical devices (for fiber lasers, see 42.55.Wd)
42.82.-m Integrated optics
42.82.Bq Design and performance testing of integrated-optical systems
42.82.Cr Fabrication techniques; lithography, pattern transfer (see also 85.40.-e Microelectronics: LSI, VLSI, ULSI; integrated circuit fabrication technology)
42.82.Ds Interconnects, including holographic interconnects (see also 42.79.Ta Optical computers, logic elements, interconnects, switches; neural networks)
42.82.Et Waveguides, couplers, and arrays (for fiber waveguides, see 42.81.Qb)
42.82.Fv Hybrid systems
42.82.Gw Other integrated-optical elements and systems
42.86.+b Optical workshop techniques
42.87.-d Optical testing techniques
42.87.Bg Phase shifting interferometry (for interferometers, see 07.60.Ly in instruments)
42.88.+h Environmental and radiation effects on optical elements, devices, and systems
42.90.+m Other topics in optics (restricted to new topics in section 42)
43. Acoustics (for more detailed headings, see Appendix to section 43)
43.20.+g General linear acoustics
43.25.+y Nonlinear acoustics
43.28.+h Aeroacoustics and atmospheric sound (see also 92.60.hh Acoustic gravity waves, tides, and compressional waves in meteorology)
43.30.+m Underwater sound (see also 92.10.Vz—in physical oceanography)
43.35.+d Ultrasonics, quantum acoustics, and physical effects of sound
... ... ... Phonons in crystal lattices, see 63.20.-e
... ... ... Acoustical properties of rocks and minerals, see 91.60.Lj
... ... ... Sound waves in plasma, see 52.35.Dm
... ... ... Low-temperature acoustics and sound in liquid helium, see section 67
... ... ... Acoustical properties and ultrasonic relaxation of solids, see 62.65.+k and 62.80.+f
... ... ... Acoustic properties of thin films, see 68.60.Bs
... ... ... Acoustoelectric effects, see 72.50.+b and 73.50.Rb
... ... ... Magnetoacoustic effects, oscillations, and resonance, see 72.55.+s, 73.50.Rb, and 75.80.+q
... ... ... Acoustic holography, see 43.60.Sx in Acoustics Appendix;
... ... ... Sound waves in fluid dynamics, see 47.35.Rs
... ... ... Acoustooptical effects, see 78.20.Hp
43.38.+n Transduction; acoustical devices for the generation and reproduction of sound
43.40.+s Structural acoustics and vibration
43.50.+y Noise: its effects and control
43.55.+p Architectural acoustics
43.58.+z Acoustical measurements and instrumentation
43.60.+d Acoustic signal processing
43.64.+r Physiological acoustics
... ... ... Biological effects of sound and ultrasound, see 87.50.Y-
43.66.+y Psychological acoustics
43.70.+i Speech production
43.71.+m Speech perception
43.72.+q Speech processing and communication systems
43.75.+a Music and musical instruments
43.80.+p Bioacoustics
43.90.+v Other topics in acoustics (restricted to new topics in section 43)
44. Heat transfer
44.05.+e Analytical and numerical techniques
44.10.+i Heat conduction (see also 66.25.+g and 66.70.-f in nonelectronic transport properties of condensed matter)
44.15.+a Channel and internal heat flow
44.20.+b Boundary layer heat flow
44.25.+f Natural convection (see also 47.27.te Turbulent convective heat transfer in fluid dynamics)
44.27.+g Forced convection
44.30.+v Heat flow in porous media
44.35.+c Heat flow in multiphase systems
44.40.+a Thermal radiation
44.90.+c Other topics in heat transfer (restricted to new topics in section 44)
45. Classical mechanics of discrete systems
45.05.+x General theory of classical mechanics of discrete systems
45.10.-b Computational methods in classical mechanics (see also 02.70.-c Computational techniques in mathematical methods in physics)
45.10.Db Variational and optimization methods
45.10.Hj Perturbation and fractional calculus methods
45.10.Na Geometrical and tensorial methods
45.20.-d Formalisms in classical mechanics
45.20.D- Newtonian mechanics
45.20.da Forces and torques
45.20.dc Rotational dynamics
45.20.df Momentum conservation
45.20.dg Mechanical energy, work, and power
45.20.dh Energy conservation
45.20.Jj Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics
45.30.+s General linear dynamical systems (for nonlinear dynamical systems, see 05.45.-a)
45.40.-f Dynamics and kinematics of rigid bodies
45.40.Aa Translation kinematics
45.40.Bb Rotational kinematics
45.40.Cc Rigid body and gyroscope motion
45.40.Gj Ballistics (projectiles; rockets)
45.40.Ln Robotics
45.50.-j Dynamics and kinematics of a particle and a system of particles
45.50.Dd General motion
45.50.Jf Few- and many-body systems
45.50.Pk Celestial mechanics (see also 95.10.Ce in fundamental astronomy)
45.50.Tn Collisions
45.70.-n Granular systems (see also 05.65.+b Self-organized systems)
45.70.Cc Static sandpiles; granular compaction
45.70.Ht Avalanches
45.70.Mg Granular flow: mixing, segregation and stratification
45.70.Qj Pattern formation
45.70.Vn Granular models of complex systems; traffic flow
45.80.+r Control of mechanical systems (see also 46.80.+j Measurement methods and techniques in continuum mechanics of solids)
45.90.+t Other topics in classical mechanics of discrete systems (restricted to new topics in section 45)
46. Continuum mechanics of solids (see also 83.10.Ff in rheology; 91.60.Ba Elasticity, fracture, and flow; 91.45.Ga Dynamics and mechanics of tectonics; 91.55.Ln Kinematics of crustal and mantle deformation in geophysics)
46.05.+b General theory of continuum mechanics of solids
46.15.-x Computational methods in continuum mechanics (see also 02.70.-c Computational techniques; simulations, in mathematical methods in physics)
46.15.Cc Variational and optimizational methods
46.15.Ff Perturbation and complex analysis methods
46.25.-y Static elasticity
46.25.Cc Theoretical studies
46.25.Hf Thermoelasticity and electromagnetic elasticity (electroelasticity, magnetoelasticity)
46.32.+x Static buckling and instability
46.35.+z Viscoelasticity, plasticity, viscoplasticity (see also 83.60.Bc, Df, in rheology; 91.60.Dc Plasticity, diffusion, and creep in physical properties of rocks and minerals)
46.40.-f Vibrations and mechanical waves (see also 43.40.+s Structural acoustics and vibration; 62.30.+d Mechanical and elastic waves; vibrations in mechanical properties of solids)
46.40.Cd Mechanical wave propagation (including diffraction, scattering, and dispersion)
46.40.Ff Resonance, damping, and dynamic stability
46.40.Jj Aeroelasticity and hydroelasticity
46.50.+a Fracture mechanics, fatigue and cracks (see also 62.20.M- Structural failure of materials in mechanical properties of condensed matter)
46.55.+d Tribology and mechanical contacts (see also 81.40.Pq Friction, lubrication and wear in materials science; 62.20.Qp Friction, tribology and hardness in mechanical properties of solids)
46.65.+g Random phenomena and media (see also 05.40.-a Fluctuation phenomena, random processes, noise, and Brownian motion)
46.70.-p Application of continuum mechanics to structures
46.70.De Beams, plates, and shells
46.70.Hg Membranes, rods, and strings
46.70.Lk Other structures
46.80.+j Measurement methods and techniques in continuum mechanics of solids (for mechanical instruments, equipment, and techniques, see 07.10.-h in instruments)
46.90.+s Other topics in continuum mechanics of solids (restricted to new topics in section 46)
47. Fluid dynamics (for fluid dynamics of quantum fluids, see section 67; see also section 83 Rheology; for sound generation by fluid flow, see 43.28.Ra—in Acoustics Appendix)
47.10.-g General theory in fluid dynamics
47.10.A- Mathematical formulations
47.10.ab Conservation laws and constitutive relations Navier-Stokes equations
47.10.Df Hamiltonian formulations
47.10.Fg Dynamical systems methods
47.11.-j Computational methods in fluid dynamics
47.11.Bc Finite difference methods
47.11.Df Finite volume methods
47.11.Fg Finite element methods
47.11.Hj Boundary element methods
47.11.Kb Spectral methods
47.11.Mn Molecular dynamics methods
47.11.Qr Lattice gas
47.11.St Multi-scale methods
47.15.-x Laminar flows
47.15.Cb Laminar boundary layers
47.15.Fe Stability of laminar flows
47.15.G- Low-Reynolds-number (creeping) flows Thin film flows Hele-Shaw flows
47.15.K- Inviscid laminar flows Inviscid flows with vorticity Potential flows
47.15.Rq Laminar flows in cavities, channels, ducts, and conduits
47.15.St Free shear layers
47.15.Tr Laminar wakes
47.15.Uv Laminar jets
47.20.-k Flow instabilities (see also 47.15.Fe Stability of laminar flows)
47.20.Bp Buoyancy-driven instabilities (e.g., Rayleigh-Benard)
47.20.Cq Inviscid instability
47.20.Dr Surface-tension-driven instability
47.20.Ft Instability of shear flows (e.g., Kelvin-Helmholtz)
47.20.Gv Viscous and viscoelastic instabilities
47.20.Hw Morphological instability; phase changes
47.20.Ib Instability of boundary layers; separation
47.20.Ky Nonlinearity, bifurcation, and symmetry breaking
47.20.Lz Secondary instabilities
47.20.Ma Interfacial instabilities (e.g., Rayleigh-Taylor)
47.20.Pc Flow receptivity
47.20.Qr Centrifugal instabilities (e.g., Taylor-Couette flow)
47.27.-i Turbulent flows
47.27.Ak Fundamentals
47.27.Cn Transition to turbulence
47.27.De Coherent structures
47.27.E- Turbulence simulation and modeling
47.27.eb Statistical theories and models
47.27.ed Dynamical systems approaches
47.27.ef Field-theoretic formulations and renormalization
47.27.ek Direct numerical simulations
47.27.em Eddy-viscosity closures; Reynolds stress modeling
47.27.ep Large-eddy simulations Spectral methods
47.27.Gs Isotropic turbulence; homogeneous turbulence
47.27.Jv High-Reynolds-number turbulence
47.27.N- Wall-bounded shear flow turbulence
47.27.nb Boundary layer turbulence
47.27.nd Channel flow Flows in pipes and nozzles
47.27.Rc Turbulence control
47.27.Sd Turbulence generated noise
47.27.T- Turbulent transport processes
47.27.tb Turbulent diffusion
47.27.te Turbulent convective heat transfer
47.27.W- Boundary-free shear flow turbulence
47.27.wb Turbulent wakes
47.27.wg Turbulent jets
47.27.wj Turbulent mixing layers
47.32.-y Vortex dynamics; rotating fluids (for vortices in superfluid helium, see and 67.30.he)
47.32.C- Vortex dynamics
47.32.cb Vortex interactions Vortex stability and breakdown Vortex reconnection and rings Vortex streets
47.32.Ef Rotating and swirling flows
47.32.Ff Separated flows
47.35.-i Hydrodynamic waves (see also 47.65.-d Magnetohydrodynamics and electrohydrodynamics; 52.35.Bj Magnetohydrodynamic waves; 52.35.Dm Sound waves in Physics of plasmas and electric discharges)
47.35.Bb Gravity waves
47.35.De Shear waves
47.35.Fg Solitary waves
47.35.Jk Wave breaking
47.35.Lf Wave-structure interactions
47.35.Pq Capillary waves
47.35.Rs Sound waves
47.35.Tv Magnetohydrodynamic waves
47.37.+q Hydrodynamic aspects of superfluidity; quantum fluids (for transport and hydrodynamics of normal and superfluid phase of 4He, see, and 67.25.dg respectively; for transport and hydrodynamics of normal and superfluid phase of 3He, see, and 67.30.hb respectively)
47.40.-x Compressible flows; shock waves (see also 43.25.Cb Macrosonic propagation, finite amplitude sound; shock waves in Acoustics Appendix; 52.35.Tc Shock waves and discontinuities in Physics of plasmas and electric discharges; 82.40.Fp Shock wave initiated reactions, high-pressure chemistry in Physical chemistry and chemical physics)
47.40.Dc General subsonic flows
47.40.Hg Transonic flows
47.40.Ki Supersonic and hypersonic flows
47.40.Nm Shock wave interactions and shock effects (for shock wave initiated chemical reactions, see 82.40.Fp)
47.40.Rs Detonation waves
47.45.-n Rarefied gas dynamics
47.45.Ab Kinetic theory of gases
47.45.Dt Free molecular flows
47.45.Gx Slip flows and accommodation
47.50.-d Non-Newtonian fluid flows
47.50.Cd Modeling
47.50.Ef Measurements
47.50.Gj Instabilities
47.51.+a Mixing (see also 64.75.Ef Mixing in Equations of state, phase equilibria, and phase transitions; 82.60.Lf Thermodynamics of solutions in Physical chemistry and chemical physics; 83.50.Xa Mixing and blending in Rheology)
47.52.+j Chaos in fluid dynamics (see also 05.45.-a Nonlinear dynamics and chaos in Statistical physics, thermodynamics, and nonlinear dynamical systems)
47.53.+n Fractals in fluid dynamics (see also 05.45.Df Fractals in Statistical physics, thermodynamics, and nonlinear dynamical systems)
47.54.-r Pattern selection; pattern formation (see also 82.40.Ck Pattern formation in reactions with diffusion, flow and heat transfer in Physical chemistry and chemical physics; 87.18.Hf Spatiotemporal pattern formation in cellular populations in Biological and medical physics)
47.54.Bd Theoretical aspects
47.54.De Experimental aspects
47.54.Fj Chemical and biological applications
47.54.Jk Materials science applications
47.55.-t Multiphase and stratified flows
47.55.Ca Gas/liquid flows
47.55.D- Drops and bubbles
47.55.db Drop and bubble formation
47.55.dd Bubble dynamics
47.55.df Breakup and coalescence Surfactant effects Thermocapillary effects
47.55.dp Cavitation and boiling
47.55.dr Interactions with surfaces
47.55.Hd Stratified flows
... ... ... Rotational flows, see 47.32.-y
47.55.Iv Core-annular flows
47.55.Kf Particle-laden flows
47.55.Lm Fluidized beds
47.55.N- Interfacial flows
47.55.nb Capillary and thermocapillary flows
47.55.nd Spreading films
47.55.nk Liquid bridges
47.55.nm Curtains/sheets Contact lines
47.55.P- Buoyancy-driven flows; convection
47.55.pb Thermal convection
47.55.pd Multidiffusive convection Marangoni convection
47.56.+r Flows through porous media
47.57.-s Complex fluids and colloidal systems (see also 82.70.-y Disperse systems; complex fluids in Physical chemistry and chemical physics; 83.80.Hj Suspensions, dispersions, pastes, slurries, colloids; 83.80.Iz Emulsions and foams in Rheology)
47.57.Bc Foams and emulsions
47.57.E- Suspensions
47.57.eb Diffusion and aggregation
47.57.ef Sedimentation and migration
47.57.Gc Granular flow
47.57.J- Colloidal systems
47.57.jb Microemulsions
47.57.jd Electrokinetic effects
47.57.Lj Flows of liquid crystals
47.57.Ng Polymers and polymer solutions
47.57.Qk Rheological aspects
47.60.-i Flow phenomena in quasi-one-dimensional systems (see also 43.28.Py Interaction of fluid motion and sound, Doppler effect and sound in flow ducts in Acoustics Appendix; 47.15.Rq Laminar flows in cavities, channels, ducts and conduits; 47.27.nd Channel flows; Flows in pipes and nozzles)
47.60.Dx Flows in ducts and channels
47.60.Kz Flows and jets through nozzles
47.61.-k Micro- and nano- scale flow phenomena
47.61.Cb Non-continuum effects
47.61.Fg Flows in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) and nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS)
47.61.Jd Multiphase flows
47.61.Ne Micromixing
47.63.-b Biological fluid dynamics (see also 87.19.U- Hemodynamics, 87.19.rh Fluid transport and rheology, 87.19.Wx Pneumodynamics, Fluid mechanics and rheology in biological and medical physics)
47.63.Cb Blood flow in cardiovascular system
47.63.Ec Pulmonary fluid mechanics
47.63.Gd Swimming microorganisms
47.63.Jd Microcirculation and flow through tissues
47.63.M- Biopropulsion in water and air High-Reynolds-number motions Low-Reynolds-number motions Transport processes and drug delivery
47.65.-d Magnetohydrodynamics and electrohydrodynamics (see also 47.35.Tv Magnetohydrodynamic waves; 52.30.Cv Magnetohydrodynamics, and 52.65.Kj Magnetohydrodynamics and fluid equation in Physics of plasmas and electric discharges; 83.80.Gv Electro- and magnetorheological fluids in Rheology)
47.65.Cb Magnetic fluids and ferrofluids
47.65.Gx Electrorheological fluids
47.65.Md Plasma dynamos
47.70.-n Reactive and radiative flows (see also 82.33.Vx Reactions in flames, combustion and explosion; 82.33.Xj Plasma reactions (including flowing afterglow and electric discharges); 82.33.Ya Chemistry of MOCVD and other vapor deposition methods in Physical chemistry and chemical physics; 92.60.Vb Radiative processes, solar radiation in Hydrospheric and atmospheric geophysics)
47.70.Fw Chemically reactive flows (see also 83.80.Jx—in rheology)
47.70.Mc Radiation gas dynamics
47.70.Nd Nonequilibrium gas dynamics
47.70.Pq Flames; combustion
47.75.+f Relativistic fluid dynamics (see also 52.27.Ny Relativistic plasmas in Physics of plasmas and electric discharges; 98.80.Jk Mathematical and relativistic aspects of cosmology in Stellar systems; interstellar medium; galactic and extragalactic objects and systems; the Universe)
47.80.-v Instrumentation and measurement methods in fluid dynamics
47.80.Cb Velocity measurements
47.80.Fg Pressure and temperature measurements
47.80.Jk Flow visualization and imaging
47.85.-g Applied fluid mechanics
47.85.Dh Hydrodynamics, hydraulics, hydrostatics
47.85.Gj Aerodynamics
47.85.Kn Hydraulic and pneumatic machinery
47.85.L- Flow control Drag reduction
47.85.ld Boundary layer control
47.85.lf Flow noise reduction Mixing enhancement
47.85.M- Material processing flows; industrial applications
47.85.mb Coating flows Polymer processing flows Lubrication flows
47.85.Np Fluidics
... ... ... Atmospheric circulation, see 92.60.Bh
... ... ... Atmospheric boundary layer processes, see 92.60.Fm
... ... ... Atmospheric turbulence, see
... ... ... Storms, see 92.60.Qx
... ... ... Hydrodynamics of the oceans, see 92.10.-c
... ... ... Mantle convection, see 91.45.Fj
... ... ... Lava and magma rheology, see 83.80.Nb, 91.40.Hw, and 91.40.Jk
... ... ... Groundwater flow, see 92.40.Kf
... ... ... Role of fluids in structural geology, see 91.55.Tt
... ... ... Flows in streams and rivers, see 92.40.Qk;
... ... ... Geothermal fluids, see 91.40.Ge
47.90.+a Other topics in fluid dynamics (restricted to new topics in section 47)


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